Oath is a solemn pronouncement to affirm the truth of statement(s). The true believers trust in God, and His words are always true to them. Still He has affirmed certain crucial statements in the suras or the entire sura by making statements of oath referring to important things, events, evidences and processes from His creations that are mentioned below:
Description of oaths
1. By (the angels ) those who line up in rows (37:1). And (the angels) those who drive away devil (37:2). And (the angels) those who recite message (37:3).
Note: This oath made by 3 statements referring to 3 different categories of angels: (1) al-saffat, (2) al-zajirat and (3) al-taliyat, affirms that your god is only One, the Lord of the heavens and the earth as well as what is between them, Who has adorned the lowest heaven with planets while He has protected the High Heaven from every evil devil (37:4-7).
2. By the blowing winds that scatter (51:1). And those (clouds) that bear rain (51:2). And those (ships) that make sailing (voyage) ease (51:3). And (the angels) those who are to carry out commands (51:4).
Note: This oath made by 4 statements referring to the functions assigned to His certain creations affirms what is promised to us will surely come to pass, i.e., the Day of Judgment is inevitable (51:5-6) but what is crucial for all of us to be aware that the sole objective of the creation of the Jinns and humans is to worship their Creator (51:56), and the sura ends with expressing sorry for the disbelievers that the day is awaiting them (51:60).
3. By the Mount (52:1). And the scripture written in unrolled parchment (52:2-3). And the frequented Shrine (52:4). And the raised ceiling (52:5). And the swollen sea (52:6).
Note: There are 5 statements in this oath and the combination of verse 2 and verse 3 completes the 2nd statement. This oath affirms that the punishment, i.e., the end of the world is coming and no force can stop it while the end of the world will come through a violent shake of the heaven and a faster movement of the mountains being removed (52:7-10). The disbelievers will suffer painful retribution because of their heedlessness and they will be thrown in the Hell where they will suffer burning whether they can be patient or impatient (52:11-16). On the other hand, the righteous have been spared the retribution of Hell and will be in gardens and bliss, and will enjoy food and drink for imploring God (52:17-28). The messenger is neither crazy nor soothsayer nor a poet but he has reminded the people with blessings given to him from his Lord (52:29). The disbelievers are either naturally wicked or they have been dictated the wickedness and they will suffer for their transgression as well as plotting and scheming and there will be no help for them (52:30-47). The messenger is commanded to glorify and praise his Lord when get up as well as in the night and the dawn (52:48-49).
4. By the star when it has gone down (53:1).
Note: This oath affirms that the prophet was neither astray nor was he misled nor does he speak out of his personal desire (53:2-3) while it was the divine inspiration by the Most Powerful who revealed what was to be revealed to him as the prophet was as close to God so He made it and the whole environment was awesome at the ultimate point, located near the eternal Paradise where he saw great signs of God (53:4-18). Allat, Al-Uzza and Mannat are nothing but the names of the idols that the Arabs used to worship (53:19-23). Even the angels have no power to intercede except the ones permitted by God according to His approval and will (53:24-28). We must disregard those who turn away from God’s revelation and are preoccupied with the worldly life while He is fully aware who are strayed away from His path and who are guided and He will requite those who commit evil for their works, and will reward the righteous for their righteousness (53:29:31). Those who do not give to charity or are unaware of the teaching in the scripture of Moses and Abraham have turned away from God (53:33-37). No soul will bear the sin of another soul and every human is made responsible for his own work and your Lord is the final destiny as He controls life and death (53:38-44). He has created us from a drop of semen and has made rich or poor (53:45-48). He punished the wicked people of Ad and Thamud, and the people of Noah and other communities (53:50-54). The inevitable day is imminent and none but God can relieve it (53:57-58). You shall prostrate before God and worship (53:62).
5. So nay, I swear by the falling of the stars (56:75). And indeed, this is surely a great oath, if you knew (56:76).
Note: This awesome oath affirms that this Quran is honorable in a protected book (56:77-78), and none can grasp it except the sincere, a revelation from the Lord of the universe (56:79-80). If you disregard this awesome statement and make it your convention to deny it, then the time will come when it (soul) reaches to your throat, you will just look around (56:81-84). We are closer to it than you are but you do not see (56:85). If it is true that you do not owe any accounting, then why are you not restoring it (soul) if you could? (56:86-87). If he (the soul) is one of those closer to Me, he will have joy, flowers and gardens of bliss (Higher Heaven) (56:88-89). If he is one of the right- peace is a lot (Lower Heaven) (56:90-91) but if he is one of the deniers, the astray (one of the left), his retribution is of scalding water and burning in Hell (56:92-94). Since this is the absolute truth, you shall glorify the name of your Lord, the Most Great (56:95-96).
6. I swear by what you see (69:38). And what you do not see (69:39).
Note: This oath consisting of 2 statements: ‘what you see and what you do not see’ affirms that this Quran is the utterance of an honorable messenger not an utterance of a poet nor soothsayer and a revelation from the Lord of the universe (69:39-43) letting us know that had he (Muhammad) uttered any other teachings, we would have stopped revelations to him and punished him, and none of you could have helped him (69:44-47). It is indeed a reminder for the righteous but it causes sorrow for the rejecters (69:48-50). It is absolute truth and you shall glorify and praise the name of your Lord, the Most Great (69:51-52).
7. So nay, I swear by Lord of the risings and the settings, that we are surely able (70:40).
Note: This oath made by a single statement referring to Lord of the risings and the settings affirms that He is able to substitute better people in place of the wicked ones but they are allowed to lead their life on their own ways until the promised day comes to them when they will come out of the graves in a rush, as if they are running a race to reach a goal (70:41-43).
8. Nay, (I swear) by the moon (74:32). And the night as it passes (74:33). And the day it shines (74:34). Indeed, it is undoutedly one of the greatest (74:35).
Note: This oath made by 4 statements: ‘(1) By the moon. (2) And the night it passes, (3) And the day it shines, (4) Indeed, it is undoubtedly one of the greatest’ affirms the reminder as mentioned in the ending phrase – “it is a reminder for the humans” in the verse (74:31) is one of the greatest as confirmed in (74:35) is an opportunity for the human race along with a warning whether they will go forward with it or stay behind with their present values and traditions when it comes to them (74:36-37).
9. Nay, I swear by a Day of the Resurrection (75:1). And nay, I swear by the blaming soul (75:2).
Note: This oath made by 2 statements: ‘I swear by the Day of Resurrection and I swear by the blaming soul’ affirms the Day of Resurrection stating the event of resurrection indicating the construction of the finger tips, the terrible events of the day from which there is no escape confirming the humans being their own judge without leaving any room of any excuse for any soul (75:3-15). Muhammad had been forbidden to explain the Quran letting him know that it will be collected into it and recited to him to follow while it is He who will explain it involving His system (75:16-18). On that day, some faces will be happy while other faces will be miserable expecting the worst as they disbelieved, turned away arrogantly from the family of the righteous and failed to fulfill their obligations (75:20-35).
10. By those (angels) who are sent in succession (77:1). And those (angels) who drive the wind (77:2). And those (angels) who move the clouds (77:3). And those (angels) who record good and evil (77:4). And those (angels) who bring down reminder of clarification or warning (77:5-6).
Note: This oath made by 5 statements referring to the angels who are sent in succession to perform certain tasks assigned to them affirms the promised day and the events on the day, reproduction of a new individual stating the process from fertilization to birth and the Day of Decision for our requital, i. e., the retaliation for the rejecters and the recompense for the righteous (77:7-50).
11. By the angels who snatch (the souls of the unrighteous) forcibly (79:1). And the angels who take (the souls of the righteous) gently (79:2). And the angels who float all round (79:3). And the angels who race each other (79:4). And the angels who arrange the matter (79:5).
Note: This oath made by 5 different groups of angels: (1) al-naziat, (2) al-nashitat, (3) al-sabihat, (4) al-sabiqat and (5) al-mudabirat affirms the angels who snatch the souls of the unrighteous forcibly and the angels who take the souls of the righteous gently, and the events on a Day of the Destruction when the earth will quake followed by the second blow. They will say, “We have been recreated from the graves and how is it possible”? Moses was sent to Pharaoh to reform but the people of Pharaoh disbelieved him. He made its night dark and brightened the morn. He made the earth egg-shaped and provided support for you and animals. Hell will be brought into existence for the transgressed and Paradise will be abode of the righteous. That day we will realize that we lasted one evening or half a day on earth.
12. I solemnly swear by the galaxies (81:15). Those that run in their orbits (81:16). And the night as it falls (81:17). And the morn as it breathes (81:18).
Note: This oath consisting of 4 statements affirms the utterance of a messenger (81:19) authorized by the Possessor of the Throne (81:20) followed by the description of events that will take place when this world comes to an end (81:1-14), and he should be obeyed and trusted (81:21) as he is not crazy (81:22) but he saw him in the high horizon (81:23). The messenger as mentioned is about the messenger of covenant as prophesied in (3:81) as the digits of sura and verse number added to 19 [8+1+1+9] is a strong indication. It is also noteworthy that the verse that reads he saw him in the high horizon (81:23) does not participate in the mathematical confirmation of prophet’s journey to High Heaven for receiving the whole Quran which confirms it to be a separate event. There is also another indication that the advent of the messenger has been confirmed when the End of the World is approaching and the hint is found at the beginning of the verse, (27:82) – ‘when the punishment is going to fulfill against them’. Hence, there is no gray area to disbelieve the messenger of covenant who has been sent with the message: ‘Mathematical coding of Quran found in (74:30-37) supported by a sign of the number 19 and the Quran’s code as a great miracle (74:30 & 74:35) followed by the fulfillment of God’s prophecies and promises (3:81 and 33:7, 15:9 and 27:82, and 74:30).
13. I solemnly swear by the dusk (84:16). And the night as it spreads (84:17). And the moon as it changes to full (84:18).
Note: This oath consisting of 3 items: (1) the dusk, (2) the night and (3) the moon affirms the painful retribution for the rejecters of Quran while the recompense for the believers who lead a righteous life has been confirmed followed by the end of the world (84:1-6).
14. By the sky and its galaxies (85:1). And the promised day (85:2). And the witness and the witnessed (85:3).
Note: This oath consisting of 3 items: the sky and its galaxies, (2) the promised day and (3) the witness and the witnessed affirms the painful retribution for those who persecute the believing men and women, then fail to repent while those who believed and led a righteous life, have deserved gardens with flowing streams, which is the greatest triumph confirming the glorious Quran preserved in a master tablet (85:21-22).
15. By the sky and the bright star (86:1).
Note: This oath consisting of the sky and the bright star affirms the creation of human from ejected liquid and His ability to resurrect him (86:6-8).
16. By the sky that returns (the water) (86:11). And the earth that cracks (to grow plants) (86:12).
Note: This oath consisting of the sky that returns and the earth that cracks affirms the plotting and scheming of the disbelievers are respite but a short respite (86:15-17).
17. By the dawn (89:1). And the ten nights (89:2). And the even and the odd (89:3). And the night as it passes (89:4). A profound oath, for one who possesses intelligence (89:5).
Note: This oath made by four statements referring to (1) the dawn, (2) the ten nights, (3) the even and odd, and (4) the night that passes including it to be an awesome oath to the intelligent affirms the consequences of 3 ancient prosperous nations, God is ever watchful, the Day of final Judgment followed by the Destruction of the World and our requital on return to our Lord.
18. I solemnly swear by this town (90:1). And the town where you live (90:2). And the begetting and the begotten (90:3).
Note: This oath consisting of 3 statements affirms that the human being was created to make effort to be aware that he must be accountable to God who has created him providing with all the necessary qualities as well as directing him to choose the difficult path of the two (90:4-11). He has also explained the difficult path is to free the slaves, feed the related and unrelated orphans during hardship and the poor when they need (90:12-16). In addition, those who will believe and exhort one another to be steadfast and kind have deserved the happiness while those who will disbelieve have incurred misery and will be confined to hellfire (90:17-20).
19. By the sun and its brightness (91:1). And the moon that follows it (91:2). And the day that reveals (91:3). And the night that covers (91:4). And the sky and its construction (91:5). And the earth and its sustenance (91:6). And the soul and its perfection (91:7).
Note: This oath consisting of 7 statements referring to the sun, the moon, the day, the night, the sky, the earth and the soul affirms that every soul was shown what is good and what is evil for it but successful indeed is the one who redeems it while failure is the one who neglects to do that (91:8-10) including the history of the disbelieving people of Thamud who not only disbelieved the messenger but also slaughtered the camel given to him as a proof from God. Consequently, they were annihilated for their sins but still people who came after them remain heedless to God’s messenger (91:11-15)
20. By the night as it covers (92:1). And the day as it reveals (92:1). And the creation of the male and the female (92:3).
Note: This oath consisting of 3 statements affirms that those who give to charity and maintain righteousness upholding the scripture will be directed towards happiness (92:5-7) while those who are stingy and disbelieve in the scripture will be directed towards misery (92:8-10) as He controls the Hereafter as well as this life (92:13).
21. By the forenoon (93:1). And the night as it falls (93:2).
Note: This oath consisting of 2 statements referring to (1) the forenoon (the morning) and (2) the night affirms that God found Muhammad orphaned but gave him a home, He found him astray but guided him and He found him poor but made him rich to let us know who he was to eliminate any confusion about his personal life (93:6-8) while he was commanded neither to forsake the poor nor to reprimand the beggar (93:9-10) to be guided.
22. By the fig and the olive (95:1). And Mount Sinai (95:2). And this honored town (95:3).
Note: This oath consisting of 3 statements referring to (1) the fig and olive, (2) the Mount and (3) the honored town (Mecca) affirms that He created the human being in the best design and reproduced him with the lowliest of lowly and those who believe and lead a righteous life will receive reward from Him (95:4-6).
23. By the panting racers (100:1). And the producers of spark (100:2). And the invaders at dawn (100:3).
Note: This oath made by 3 statements including 3 events affirms that there was a striking terror therein penetrating to the heart of their territory (100:4-5). However, the human beings are unappreciative even knowing that they will be their own witnesses but they love material things too much while all secrets will be brought on that day as their Lord has been fully Cognizant of them (100:6-11).
24. By the afternoon (103:1).
Note: This oath consisting of a single statement affirms that the human beings are surely in loss except those who have believed and have done the righteous deeds, and have enjoined one another with the truth and of the steadfastness (103:2-3).
Criteria to accept certain statements as oath of God
Since God has not left anything out of this book, we find certain criteria in the Quran as well to serve as a model to accept His certain statements to be His statements of oath to maintain consistency in interpreting and accepting His statements as His oath to avoid any confusion being a serious matter to the believers:
- Statements of oath are made by important things, significant events, clear evidences and well defined processes from His creations that most people are acquainted with contemplation and viewing.
- The nature of messages in the verses and their grammatical form fits them to be the statement(s) of God’s oath in the context.
- A verse at the beginning of the sura that starts with the Arabic conjunction “wa” whose literal meaning is “and” but acting like a preposition “by” to indicate a statement of oath.
- A verse at the beginning of the sura or at the middle of sura that starts with the Arabic word “uq’simu” meaning “I swear” makes it straightforward for us to find the statements of oath.
- Even in the absence of the word “Uq’simu” in the middle of the sura, there is some kind of indication to find His statements of oath as found in (86:13).
- The subsequent verses are connected to the same oath by the Arabic conjunctions “wa” or “fa” meaning “and”. Therefore, there is single statement as well as multiple statements oath, and the concept of multiple statements oath is confirmed in (89:5).
There are 24 oaths of God in 76 verses across 23 suras including 2 oaths in sura 86. The sum of the relevant sura and verse numbers is a multiple of 19 => 2470 = 19 x 130 as shown below table. There is also additional proof in the number of verses => 76 = 19 x 4.
Note: 56:76, 74:35 and 89:5 are confirmation of the oath. In 52:2, the combination of 52:2 and 52:3 completes the 2nd statement logically being a single statement. No sura number is repeated even if it has 2 oaths as we see in sura 86. 86:11 and 86:12 in the middle of the sura does not start with the Arabic word, “Uq’simu” but the following verse 86:13 confirms it to be a serious narration and also help to exclude the verse 51:7 that seems to be a statement of oath.
It is true that all statements of God have the same standard and He does not need to take any oath to convey any message to the humanity. But it is His mercy that He has confirmed certain messages and commandments in His final scripture by taking oath to make our extra focus on them so that we can save us from the punishment that awaits us upon return to Him. Thus, His oath is an opportunity for the believers to strengthen their faith to make a drive towards perfecting their beliefs and practices while it may also serve as an opportunity for the disbelievers to evaluate their views and stands that may help them to repent and reform to avoid the painful retribution.
The isolation of the statements of God’s oath following a standard has also mathematical confirmation for participation of a specific set of verses in the mathematical analysis. The mathematical confirmation serves like a computer program, a collection of codes that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. We have not only the mathematical confirmation of His statements of oath but also the awesomeness of His oath. It is interesting to note that any of these statements of oath is not from any of the suras prefixed with Quranic initials, which confirms that the Quranic initials are a distinct set of God’s oath that play other significant roles too. Since God’s oath is awesome and if we give proper attention to what has been confirmed under His oath such as the awareness of the Hereafter, the events and requital on the promised day, we may take sincere initiatives to perform our given practices correctly and lead a righteous life that would help us get into the Hereafter with certainty followed by a gentle extraction of our souls at the time of our departure.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.