Idolatry in general is the worship of a statute or a person in place of God while association of anything or anyone in the worship of God is a tragedy for the people who practice divine religion even idolizing the prophet and the messenger. He has given us the Quran which is so efficient to find the truth as well as to do the righteous deeds avoiding idolatry even reflecting to a set of verses in it to make it simple for us that we never fall into idol worshipping being an unforgiveable sin.
However, 168 instances of شَرِيك (shareek) meaning partners in eight different grammatical forms in the Quran as shown in the table below may help us understand idolatry and avoid it in order to perfect our beliefs and practices being the basis of our success with God in the Hereafter:
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com.
Out of 168, 72 instances in the verb form have already been reviewed while here are 45 instances in the noun form found in 38 verses across 21 suras to understand that idolatry is a horrendous crime, which nullifies our all deeds if it has been maintained until death while God is forgiving and merciful for whoever has repented and reformed before death comes to him:
Instance of shir’k
There are 5 instances of شِرْك (shir’k) in the noun form meaning “Idolatry” found in 5 verses in 4 suras described below:
[31:13] And when Luqman said to his son, while he advises him, “O my son, do not associate partners with God; indeed, the association of partners is a great injustice (inna al-shir’ka lazulmun azeemun).”
[34:22] Say, “Call on those whom you have claimed other than God. They do not possess an atom’s weight in the heavens, nor in the earth, nor for them in them any partnership (wa-maa lahum feehimaa min shir’kin), nor for Him from them any supporter.”
[35:14] If you call on them, they cannot hear your call. And if they had heard you, they would not have responded to you. And a day of the Resurrection, they will deny of your association (wa-yawma al-qiyaamati yakfuruuna bi-shir’kikum). None can inform you like a Cognizant.
[35:40] Say, “Have you seen your partners, those whom you call other than God?” Show Me what they have created from the earth or for them is there any partnership in the heavens (aw lahum shir’kun fee al-samaawaati) or have we given them a scripture that they are on a clear proof from it? Nay, a promise of the wrongdoers to one another is not but an delusion.
[46:4] Say, “Have you seen what they call other than God?” Show Me what they have created from the earth or for them is there any partnership in the heavens (aw lahum shir’kun fee al-samaawaati)? Bring Me of a scripture before this, or a piece of knowledge, if you have been truthful.”
Instances of shareek
There are 40 instances of شَرِيك (shareek) in the noun form meaning “partner” and its plural form is شُرَك (shurak) found in 33 verses in 17 suras described below:
[4:12] And for you is half of what your wives had left, if there be not a child for them. While if for them has been a child, then for you is the one-fourth of what they had left, after any will they make with it, or any debt. And for them is the one-fourth of what you had left, if there be not a child for you. While if for you has been a child, then for them is the one-eighth of what you had left, after any will you make with it, or any debt. And if a man has been no parents or child is to be inherited or an woman, and for him there is a brother or a sister, then for each of two is the one-sixth. While if they have been more than that, then they are partners in the one-third (fa’hum shurakaa-u fee al-thuluthi) after any will is made with it or any debt without being harmful ones. This is a will from God, and God is Knower, Forbearing.
[6:22] And a day we will gather all, then we will ask to those who have associated partners, “Where are your partners (ayna shurakaaukumu), those whom you have done to claim?”
[6:94] “And certainly, you have come to us as individual like we have created you first time, and you have left behind your backs whatever we have provided you and we do not see with you your intercessors those whom you had claimed that they were partners in you (shufa`aa-akumu alladheena za`amtum annahum feekum shurakaau). Indeed, it has severed between yourselves and has lost from you what you had done to claim.
[6:100] And they have made the jinn as partners for God (wa-ja`aluu lillahi shurakaa-a al-jina) while He has created them, and have falsely attributed sons and daughters to Him without having knowledge. Glory is His and He has exalted high above what they attribute.
[6:136] They have assigned a share for God from what He has produced of the crops and the livestock that they say, “This is for God,” by their claim, “and this is for our partners (wa-haadha lishurakaaina).” So, what has done for their partners does not reach God (famaa kaana lishurakaaihim falaa yasilu ilaa allahi), then it reaches their partners (fa-huwa yasilu ilaa shurakaaihim). It has been evil what they judge.
[6:137] And thus that has made fair seeming to many of the idolaters of their partners in killing their children (wa-kadhaalika zayyana likatheerin mina al-mush’rikeena qatla awlaadihim shurakaauhum) that they may ruin them and that they may make confused their religion for them. And if God had willed, they would not have done it. So you shall leave them and what they invent.
[6:139] And they said, “What is in the wombs of these livestock is exclusive for our males and forbidden for our spouses, while if it be dead, then they are partners in it (wa-in yakun maytatan fahum feehi shurakaau).” He will recompense them for their attribution; indeed, He is Wise, Knower.
[6:163] “There is no partner for Him (laa-shareeka lahu) and with that I (Muhammad) have been commanded, and I am first of the submitters.”
[7:190] Then when He gives them a good one, they have made partners for Him in what He gives them (ja`alaa lahu shurakaa-a feemaa aataahumaa). So God has exalted high above what they associate.
[7:195] Are there feet for them to walk with them or hands for them to hold with them or eyes for them to see with them or ears for them to hear with them? Say, “Call upon your partners (id`uu shurakaa-akum), then scheme against me and you do not give me respite.
[10:28] A day we gather them all; then we will say to those who have associated partners, “Here is your place, you and your partners (makaanakum antum wa-shurakaaukum).” Then we will separate between themselves, while their partners said (wa-qaala shurakaauhum), “You have not done to worship us alone.”
[10:34] Say, “Is there any of your partners who can initiate the creation (hal min shurakaaikum man yabda-u al-khalqa thumma yu`eeduhu), then he can repeat it?” Say, “God initiates the creation, then He repeats it. Then how are you deluded?
[10:35] Say, “Is there any of your partners who guides to the truth (hal min shurakaaikum man yahdee ilaa al-haqqi) ?” Say, “God guides to the truth. Is then he whoever guides to the truth more worthy that he should be followed, or is he whoever does not guide except that he is guided? Then what is for you how you judge?”
[10:66] No doubt; indeed, to God belongs whoever is in the heavens and whoever is in the earth. You should not follow those who call upon partners other than God (alladheena yad`uuna min duuni allahi shurakaa-a). They do not follow except the conjecture while they do not do except guess.
[10:71] You shall recite Noah’s news to them when he said to his people, “O my people, if it has been hard my stay for you and my reminding with God’s revelations, then upon God I put trust. So you shall get together with your plan and your partners (fa-ajmi`uu amrakum wa-shurakaa-akum); then you should not be in any doubt in your plan for you, then you shall carry out against me and do not give me a respite.
[13:16] Say, “Who is Lord of the heavens and the earth?” Say, “God.” Say, “Have you then taken other than Him as protectors – they do not possess any power for themselves of any benefit nor any harm?” Say, “Do equal the blind and the seer? Or do equal the darkness and the light?” Or have they attributed partners to God (aw ja`aluu lillahi shurakaa-a) – they have created like His creation that the creation has seemed alike to them? Say, “God is Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Supreme.”
[13:33] Is then He whoever is a Maintainer of every soul for what it has earned while you have ascribed partners to God (wa-ja`aluu lillahi shurakaa-a)? Say, “Name them, or do you inform Him of what He does not know in the earth, or is it a show off of the sayings?” Nay, it has been made fair seeming their plotting to those who have disbelieved while they have been hindered from the right path. And whoever God lets go astray, then for him there is no guide.
[16:27] Then a day of the Resurrection, He will disgrace them and will say, “Where are My partners (ayna shurakaaiya) for whom you have done to oppose for the sake of them?” He said those who have given the knowledge, “Indeed, today is the disgrace and the evil upon the disbelievers.”
[16:86] And when those who have associated partners have seen their partners (wa-idhaa ra-aa alladheena ashrakuu shurakaa-ahum), they have said, “Our Lord, these are our partners of those whom we have done to invoke other than You (rabbanaa haaulaai shurakaaunaa alladheena kunnaa nad`uu min duunika).” Then they have sent back the word at them, “Indeed, you are surely liars.”
[17:111] And say, “All praise to God, the One who does not take a son, nor does be a partner for Him in the dominion (wa-lam yakun lahu fee al-mul’ki), nor does be a protector for Him out of the weakness, and you shall magnify Him having all magnificence.”
[18:52] And a day He will say, “Call upon My partners of those whom you had claimed (naaduu shurakaaiya alladheena za`amtum),” then they have called on them, but they do not respond to them. And we have made a barrier between themselves.
[25:2] The One to Him belongs dominion of the heavens and the earth, and He does not take a son, nor does be a partner for Him in the dominion (wa-lam yakun lahu fee al-mul’ki), and He has created everything as He has determined it with precise determination.
[28:62] And a day He will call them, then say, “Where are My partners those whom you had done to claim (ayna shurakaaiya alladheena kuntum taz’`umuuna)?”
[28:64] It has been said, “Call upon your partners (id’`uu shurakaa-akum).” Then they have called upon them, but they do not respond to them and they have seen the punishment. If that they had done to guide.
[28:74] And a day He will call them, then say, “Where are My partners those whom you had done to claim (ayna shurakaaiya alladheena kuntum taz’`umuuna)?”
[30:13] There will not be any intercessors for them from their partners (wa-lam yakun lahum min shurakaaihim shufa`aau) while they have been disbelievers in their partners.
[30:28] He has set an example for you from yourselves. Is there any partners for you from your servants (hal lakum min maa malakat aymaanukum min shurakaa-a) in what we have provided you that you are equal in it, fearing them as you fear yourselves? Thus that we explain the revelations for a people who understand.
[30:40] God is the One who has created you, then He has provided for you. Then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you back to life. Does any of your partners who can do anything of that (hal min shurakaaikum man yaf’`alu min dhaalikum)? Glory is His, and He has exalted high above what they associate.
[34:27] Say, “Show me those whom you have included with Him as partners (aruuniya alladheena alhaqtum bihi shurakaa-a).” Say, “By no means; nay, He is God, the Almighty, the Wise.”
[35:40] Say, “Have you seen your partners whom you call other than God (a-ra’aytum shurakaa-akumu alladheena tad’`uuna min duuni allahi)?” Show Me what they have created from the earth or for them is there any partnership in the heavens or have we given them a scripture that they are on a clear proof from it? Nay, a promise of the wrongdoers to one another is not but an delusion.
[39:29] God has set an example of a man with him partners of quarreling (daraba allahu mathalan rajulun feehi shurakaa-u mutashaakisuuna) and a man having an agreeing man. Do they (both) equal in illustration? All praise to God; nay, most of them do not know.
[41:47] To Him is referred knowledge of the Hour. No fruits emerge from their sheaths, nor does any female conceive or give birth without of His knowledge. A day He will call them: “Where are My partners (ayna shurakaaiya)?” They have said, “We proclaim to You – there is no witness among us.”
[42:21] Or for them are there partners who have decreed for them the religion (aw lahum shurakaau shara`uu lahum mina al-deeni) which God does not permit with it? And if it were not for a promise of the decision, it would surely have been judged between themselves. And indeed, the wrongdoers for them there is a painful punishment.
[68:41] Or for them are there partners (wa lahum shurakaau)? Then let them bring of their partners (fal-yatuu bi-shurakaaihim), if they have been truthful.
- Luqman advised his son not to associate partners with God as the association of partners with Him is a great injustice.
- Those whom are called other than God do not possess an atom’s weight in the heavens and the earth nor have they any partnership with Him in them nor do they support Him.
- Those whom are called other than God cannot respond even if they hear the call, while they will deny the association on a day of judgment.
- Those who are claimed as partners have no partnership with God in the creation of the heaven nor have they created anything from the earth nor have they been given a scripture that they are on a clear proof from it.
- Those whom are called other than God have not created anything in the earth nor have partnership with Him in the heavens nor have they any piece of knowledge or a scripture before this.
- On a day of gathering He will ask those who associated partners “where are your partners” those whom you had claimed.
- He will gather all as individual and would not see with them their intercessors whom they had claimed that they were their partners, which is also a confirmation that intercession is a myth.
- They have made the jinn as partners for God while He has created them, and also have falsely attributed sons and daughter to Him without knowledge.
- Even they distribute their crops and livestock saying that this is for God and this is for our partners.
- It has been made fair seeming for the idolaters by their partners in killing of their children confusing them about their religion.
- Muhammad has been commanded to submit to his Lord that there is no partner for his Lord.
- A day He will gather them together with their partners, then He will separate them from their partners who will say you did not worship us.
- Those whom have been claimed as their partners with God cannot initiate the creation nor can they repeat it, which God can only do that.
- God guides to the truth while those whom are claimed as partners cannot guide to the truth.
- Those who follow partners other than God do not follow except the conjecture or they just guess.
- Noah asked his people to whom his stay and reminding of God’s revelation was hard for them that they may carry out a plan against him with their partners.
- Those who attribute partners to God are the blind not the seer, even they cannot distinguish between the darkness and the light.
- God maintains every soul for what it has earned while many of us have ascribed partners to God.
- A day of resurrection, He will disgrace those who had claimed partners and will say, “Where are My partners” for whom you had opposed Me.
- Those who associated partners with God will see their partners on that day and will say, “These are our partners.”
- All praise to God, the One who has not taken a son, nor does be a partner for Him in the dominion.
- On that when His partners whom they had claimed are called by them, they would not respond.
- To Him is the dominion of the heavens and the earth and He does not take a son to be a partner.
- On that when they see punishment they have called upon their partners but they will not respond.
- There will not be any intercessors from their partners when they will be disbelievers in their partners.
- God is a Creator who provides for us, causes death to us and will bring back to life, while His partners who are claimed cannot do anything of that.
- Those whom are claimed partners have not created anything from the earth or for themselves, or any partnership in the heavens or are given them a scripture that they are on a clear proof from it.
- God has set an example of a man with him quarreling partners and a man with him an agreeing man that we can put trust upon God and His words being a valid source to be free from idolatry.
- God has been aware of every event in the heavens and the earth including the Hour, while a day He will call those who had attributed partners: “Where are My partners?” They have said, “We proclaim to You – there is no witness among us.”
- There are partners who have decreed for them the religion which God does not permit with it.
- For them there had been partners were told, “Bring your partners, if you have been truthful.”
The Arabic phrase, ayna shurakaaukumu indicates existence of partnership with God among His worshippers, who decrees religion for them while intercession is a idolatry being partnership with Him.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.