138 instances of Arabic words in the Quran from the same root, which have made simple and straightforward for us to reflect to establish the religion given by God classified in 5 different grammatical forms, are reviewed as highlighted in the table below to interpret appropriate message in different contexts:
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com.
Here are 33 instances of qaama in the verb I form found in 30 verses across 19 surahs in the Quran are reviewed below to confirm their meanings in different contexts, while we know that the Arabic word may have different meanings in the different contexts:
[2:20] The lightning almost snatches away their sight. Whenever it has flashed for them, they have walked, and when it has darkened on them, they have stood (qaamuu). And if God had willed, surely, He would have taken away of their hearing and their sight. Indeed, God has power over everything.
[2:238] You shall be consistent on the salat prayers including the middle salat prayer, and shall establish being obedient to God (wa-quumuu lillahi qaaniteena).
[2:275] Those who consume the usury do not stand (laa-yaquumuuna) except like that the one who confounds him from the touch of the Satan. That is because they said, “Indeed, the trade is like the usury”, while God has permitted the trade and has forbidden the usury. So, whomever has come to him an admonition from his Lord, then he has refrained, then for him what has passed and his matter is upon God; and whoever has repeated, then those are companions of the Fire – they will be dwellers in it.
[4:102] When you (prophet) have been with them, then you have established the salat prayer for them, then let stand (fal-taqum) a group from them with you and let them take of their arms. Then when you have prostrated, then let them be of their behind, and let come another group, which has not prayed, then let them pray with you and let them take of their precautions and their arms. Those who have disbelieved have wished if you neglect of your arms and your baggage, then they can assault upon you in a single attack, while there is no blame upon you if it has been a trouble with you from rain or you have been sick that you lay down your arms and you shall take your precautions. Indeed, God has prepared a shameful punishment for the disbelievers.
[4:127] And they seek ruling to you (Muhammad) about the women. Say, “God gives you ruling about them, and what is recited to you in the scripture about orphans, the girls to whom you do not give them what has been decreed for them, while you wish to marry them; and those who are weak of the children, and that you stand (taquumuu) for the orphans with the justice. And whatever you do from good, then indeed, God has been Knower of it.”
[4:142] Indeed, the hypocrites think to deceive God, while He is who deceives them. And when they have stood (qaamuu) for the salat prayer, they have established (qaamuu) in reluctance to show off the people, while they do not remember God except a little.
[5:6] O you who have believed, when you have intended (qum’tum) for the salat prayer, then you shall wash your faces and your hands to the elbows, and shall wipe of your heads and your feet to the ankles. And if you have been in impurity for sexual contact, then you shall purify. And if you have been ill, or on a journey, or anyone of you who has come from the toilet or has contacted the women, then you cannot find water, then you shall do tayammum from clean soil that you shall wipe of your faces and your hands from it. God does not intend to make any difficulty upon you; but He intends to purify you and to complete His blessing upon you that you may appreciate.
[5:107] Then if it has been discovered on that the two witnesses have been guilty of sin, then the two others will stand (yaquumaani) in their place from those who have right over them – the former two; then they swear by God, “Our testimony is truer than their testimony and we have not transgressed; indeed, we then surely will be with the wrongdoers.”
[9:84] And you do not pray ever for any of them who has died and do not stand (wa-laa-taqum) by his grave; indeed, they have disbelieved in God and His messenger, and have died, while they were disobedient.
[9:108] You do not pray (laa-taqum) ever in it. Surely, a masjid has been founded on the righteousness from first day is more worthy that you pray (taquuma) in it. In it, are people who love that they will purify, and God loves the purified ones.
[14:41] “Our Lord, forgive for me and for my parents, and for the believers, a day will establish (yaquumu) the reckoning.”
[18:14] And we have made stronger of their hearts when they have established (qaamuu) and have said, “Our Lord is Lord of the heavens and the earth. We will never call on any god other than Him; certainly, we would have said then an extreme depravity.”
[26:218] The One who sees you (Muhammad) when you stand (taquumu) (for the salat prayer).
[27:39] An afrit from the jinn said, “I will come to you with it before you stand up (taquuma) from your position. Indeed, I am surely trustworthy strong for it.”
[30:12] And a day establishes (taquumu) the Hour, the criminals will despair.
[30:14] And a day establishes (taquumu) the Hour, that day they will become separated (from their partners).
[30:25] Among His proofs is that there stands (taquuma) the heaven and the earth by His command. Then when He has called you a call out of the earth, when you will come forth.
[30:55] A day establishes (taquumu) the Hour, the criminals will swear they have not remained except one hour. Thus that they have been deluded.
[34:46] Say, “I only advise you for one thing that you would stand (taquumuu) for God, in pairs or as individuals, then you would reflect. There is no madness in your friend, nor is he except a warner for you before a severe punishment.”
[40:46] The Fire, they see on it morning and evening, and a day establishes (taquumu) the Hour: “Admit Pharaoh’s people into the worst punishment.”
[40:51] Indeed, we surely support our messengers and those who have believed in the life of the world and a day there will stand (yaquumu) the witnesses.
[45:27] And to God belongs Kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and a day establishes (taquumu) the Hour; that day the falsifiers will lose.
[52:48] And you shall be patient for your Lord’s command that indeed, you are in our eyes. And you shall glorify with praise of your Lord when you get up (taquumu).
[57:25] Certainly, we have sent our messengers with the clear proofs, and we have sent down with them the scripture and the balance that it may establish (liyaquuma) the people with the justice, while we have sent down the iron, wherein there are substantial strength and benefits for the people so that God may make evident whoever helps Him in the unseen and His messengers. Indeed, God is Powerful, Almighty.
[72:19] And that when God’s servant had stood (qaama) to call Him, they have been almost all to be a band around him.
[73:2] You shall awake (qumi) the night except for a little.
[73:20] Indeed, your (Muhammad) Lord knows that you may awake (taquumu) less than two-thirds of the night, and half of it, and one-third of it, and a group of those who are with yourself. And God has designed the night and the day. He has known that you may not keep up it. So, He has turned to you that you shall read what has been easy from the Quran. He has known that there may be sick among you and others may travel in the land seeking for God’s bounty, and others may fight in God’s path. So, you shall read what has been easy from it, and shall establish the salat prayer and shall give the zakat and shall loan God a good loan. And whatever of good you send forth for yourselves, you will find it with God. It will be better and greater reward. And you shall ask forgiveness of God; indeed, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
[74:2] Come out (qum) that you shall warn.
[78:38] A day the Spirit and the angels will stand (yaquumu) in a row; they will not speak except whoever the Gracious has permitted for him, and he has said truth.
[83:6] A day mankind will stand (yaquumu) before Lord of the worlds.
The review of instances of qaama indicates that it can be translated to ‘stand or establish’ in most cases but it can also be translated to ‘intend, pray, awake or come out’ to reflect appropriate message in certain cases, which may help us to obey certain commands of God knowing that the Arabic word may have different meanings in different contexts.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.