There are 316 instances in the Quran derived from hadaa, which can broadly be classified into 8 different groups based on their grammatical forms as shown in the table below. These instances have meanings based on their grammatical forms while an Arabic word may have different meanings in different contexts as well. However, 38 instances belonging to the groups of ahdaa in the noun form, haad in the active participle form, and muh’tad in the active participle VIII form in the Quran are reviewed here together to better understand their meaning in different contexts:
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com.
Details of Instances of ahdaa
There are 7 instances of ahdaa in the noun form meaning “guided” in 7 verses across 7 surahs in the Quran are described below:
[4:51] Do not see to those who have been given a portion of the scripture? They believe in the superstition and the false deities, and say for those who have disbelieved, “These are better guided than those who have believed to a (straight) path (haaulaai ahdaa mina alladheena aamanuu sabeelan).”
[6:157] Or you would say, “If that the scripture had been revealed to us, surely, we would have been better guided than them (la’kunnaa ahdaa min’hum).” So certainly, has come to you clear proofs from your Lord, and guidance and mercy. Then who is more wicked than whoever has denied in God’s revelations and has turned away from them? We will recompense those who turn away from our revelations an evil punishment for what they have done to turn away.
[17:84] Say (Muhammad), “Everyone does on his manner, then your Lord is Knower of whoever is guided to a (straight) path (fa-rabbukum a’lamu bi-man huwa ahdaa sabeelan).”
[28:49] Say (Muhammad), “Then come with a scripture from God, which is better guided than both of them (huwa ahdaa min’hummaa), I will follow it, if you have been truthful ones.”
[35:42] They have sworn by God committing to their oaths; surely, if a warner had come to them, surely, they would be better guided than any of the communities (la’yakuununna ahdaa min ih’da al-umami); then when a warner had come to them, it has not increased them except in aversion.
[43:24] He (any warner sent before) said, “even if had I come to you with better guided (a’wa-law ji’tukum bi-ahdaa) than what you have found your forefathers on it?” They would have said, “Indeed, we are disbelievers of what you have been sent with it.”
[67:22] Does he then whoever walk fallen on his face better guided (a’fa-man yamshee mukibban `alaa waj’hihi ahdaa), or does he whoever walk on an even path?
Details of instances of haad
There are 10 instances of haad and its derived in the active participle form meaning “guide” in 10 verses across 8 surahs in the Quran are described below:
[7:186] Whomever God lets go astray, then there is no guide for him (fa-laa-haadiya lahu), while He leaves them in their transgression to wander.
[13:7] And those who have disbelieved say, “Why not has been sent down a miracle to him (Muhammad) from his Lord.” You are only a warner, while there is a guide for every people (wa-li’kulli qawmin haadin).
[13:33] Is then He whoever a Maintainer of every soul for what it has earned, while they have made partners to God? Say, “You shall name them or you may inform Him of what He does not know in the earth, nor of being apparent of the words?” Nay, it has been made fair-seeming their plotting to those who have disbelieved, and they have been prevented from the path. And whomever God lets go astray, then there is no guide for him (fa-maa lahu min haadin).
[22:54] And that it may know those who have been given the knowledge that it is the truth from your Lord, then they believe in it, then it may humble their hearts to it. And indeed, God surely is a Guide of those who have believed to a straight path (wa-inna allaha la’haadi alladheena aamanuu ilaa siraatin mus’taqeemin).
[25:31] And thus that we have made enemy for every prophet from the criminals, while has sufficed of your Lord as a Guide and a Helper (wa-kafaa bi-rabbika haadiyan wa-naseeran).
[27:81] Nor can you be of a guide for the blind from their astray (wa-maa anta bi-haadee al`um’yi `an dalaalatihim), nor can you make hear except whoever believes in our revelations that they are submitters.
[30:53] Nor can you be of a guide for the blind from their astray (wa-maa anta bi-haadee al`um’yi `an dalaalatihim), nor can you make hear except whoever believes in our revelations that they are submitters.
[39:23] God has revealed a scripture of the best statement being consistent to each other. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (Quran), then their skins and their hearts soften up to God’s message. That is God’s guidance; He guides with it (Quran) whomever He wills, and whomever God lets go astray, then there is no guide for him (fa-maa lahu min haadin).
[39:36] Is not with God sufficient for His servant? And they threaten you with those other than Him. And whomever God lets go astray, then there is no guide for him (fa-maa lahu min haadin).
[40:33] “A day you will turn back fleeing – there is no protector for you against God. And whomever God lets go astray, then there is no guide for him (fa-maa lahu min haadin).”
Details of instances of muh’tad
There are 21 instances of muh’tad and its derived in the active participle VIII form meaning “guided one” in 21 verses across 13 surahs in the Quran are described below:
[2:16] Those are the ones who have purchased the straying with the guidance. So, their commerce has not profited, nor have they been guided ones (wa-maa kaanuu muh’tadeena).
[2:70] They said, “Call your Lord for us to make clear for us what it is. Indeed, the cow has looked alike to us. And indeed we, if God has willed, surely be guided ones (wa-innaa in shaa-a allahu la’muh’taduuna).”
[2:157] Those upon them are blessings from their Lord and mercy. Those – they are the guided ones (ulaika humu al-muh’taduuna).
[6:56] Say, “Indeed, I (Muhammad) have been forbidden that I worship those (Allat, Aluzzah and Manat) whom you call other than God.” Say, “I will not follow your desires; (if I do) certainly, I would have gone astray then, and I would not be with the guided ones (wa-maa anaa mina al-muh’tadeena).”
[6:82] Those who have believed and do not mix their belief with wrong, those for them is the security and they are guided ones (ulaika lahu al-amnu wa-hum muh’taduuna).
[6:117] Indeed, your Lord is Knower of whoever strays from His path, and He is Knower of the guided ones (wa-huwa a`lamu bil-muh’tadeena).
[6:140] Certainly has lost those who have killed their children in foolishness without knowledge, and have forbidden what God has provided them inventing against God. Certainly, they have gone astray and they have not been guided ones (wa-maa kaanuu muh’tadeena).
[7:30] A group He has guided, while a group has justified the straying for them – indeed, they have taken the devils as allies other than God, and they think that they are guided ones (wa-yah’sabuuna annahum muh’taduuna).
[7:178] Whomever God guides, then he is the guided one (man yahdi allahu fa-huwa al-muh’tadee), and whomever He lets go astray – those, they are the losers.
[9:18] Only he maintains God’s masjids whoever has believed in God and the Last Day, and has established the salat prayer and has given the zakat, and does not fear except God. Then it may have been those that they would be among the guided ones (fa-`asaa ulaaika an yakuunuu mina al-muh’tadeena).
[10:45] And a day He will gather them, as if they do not remain except one hour of the day, they can recognize between themselves. Certainly, has lost those who had denied in God’s meeting and they had not been guided ones (wa-maa kaanuu muh’tadeena).
[16:125] You (Muhammad) shall call to your Lord’s path with the wisdom and the good advice, and shall debate with them with that which is best. Indeed, your Lord – He is Knower of whoever has strayed from His path and He is Knower of the guided ones (wa-huwa a`lamu bil-muh’tadeena).
[17:97] And whomever God guides, then he is the guided one (wa-man yahdi allahu fa-huwa al-muh’tadi), and whomever He lets go astray, then you will not find for them any protectors other than Him. And we will gather them on a day of the Resurrection on their faces blind, and dumb, and deaf. Their abode is Hell – every time it has subsided, we will increase for them the blazing fire.
[18:17] And you may see the sun when it has risen inclining away from their cave to the right, and when it has set passing away from them to the left, while they are in the open space from it. That is of God’s signs. Whomever God guides, then he is the guided one (man yahdi allahu fa-huwa al-muh’tadi), and whomever He lets go astray, then you will not find for him a protector, (nor) a guide.
[28:56] Indeed, you (Muhammad) cannot guide whoever you have loved, but God guides whomever He wills; and He is Knower of the guided ones (wa-huwa a`lamu bil-muh’tadeena).
[36:21] “Follow whoever do not ask you any wage, and they are guided ones (wa-hum muh’taduuna).”
Note: Here there is indication that God has let us know that there are a people among us who are guided and can also recognize the guided ones.
[43:22] Nay, they said, “We have found our forefathers upon (belong to) a community, and indeed, we are guided ones on (following) their footsteps (wa-innaa `alaa aathaarihim muh’taduuna).”
[43:37] And indeed, they surely turn them from the path, and think that they are guided ones (wa-yah’sabuuna annahum muh’taduuna).
[43:49] They said, “O you the magician (Moses), call your Lord for us with what He has promised with you; indeed, we will surely be guided ones (innaa la’muh’taduuna).”
[57:26] And certainly, we have sent Noah and Abraham, and have placed in their descendants the prophethood and the scripture; then from them there is a guided one (fa-minhum muh’tadin), while most of them are disobedient.
[68:7] Indeed, your (Muhammad) Lord – He is Knower of whoever has strayed from His path, and He is Knower of the guided ones (wa-huwa a`lamu bil-muh’tadeena).
God has made it a requirement for all of us to believe in the scripture to be on a straight path being a guided path, while there is guide for every people but whomever He lets go astray there is no guide for him and He leaves the disbelievers in transgression to wander making their deeds fair-seeming to them and preventing them from His path. God is a Guide for those who recognize what has been revealed to Muhammad is the truth from Him and believe to a straight path, while He has revealed a scripture with best hadith and has made it clear that the skins of those shiver from it and their hearts soften up to His reminder are the guided ones.
Whomever God guides is the guided one, while whomever He lets go astray is not the guided one. Thus, He is Knower of those who have been guided and of those who have gone astray, while His blessings and mercy upon those who are guided. Those who have believed but have not mixed their belief with wrong are the guided ones, while those who have forbidden what God has provided inventing lies against Him have gone astray and are not the guided ones. Those who have taken the devils as allies other than God think that they are the guided ones, while God has made fair-seeming their deeds to them to make them losers. Those who only maintain God’s masjids believing in God and the Last Day, and have established the salat prayer and have given the zakat fearing Him are among the guided ones. Those who had denied God’s revelations and His meeting have lost on a day of the Resurrection and will not find any protectors as they have gone astray following the footsteps of their forefathers, while there is no good news for those who are practicing religion allying them to the so called Muslim community. God is a Guide and a Helper for the guided ones, while He has been merciful upon the believers that He has let them recognize who are the guided ones among the people that we should not overlook behaving like blind and deaf leading us to Hell, the worst place of return.
Review of 38 instances in 3 different grammatical forms, which are closely related make it clear not to have any doubt or confusion for us to know who have been guided and who have gone astray among the people of any generation. It also helps us to understand that God is a Guide for those who have believed in a straight path and the purchasing of the straying with the guidance is the consequence of dividing God’s religion into sects and sub-sects based on alleged hadiths and sunnah instead of holding fast to the rope of God through His revelations. In fact, what should not escape our notice is emerging of the two religious groups in 19th century: Bahaism and Ahmadiyya based on the advent of Mahdi supported by prophet’s hadiths are remarkable examples that hadiths are fabrications and big lies, while there is no mention or hint in the Quran directly or indirectly on the advent of Mahdi down the generations being a guided one nor a guide nor a reformer. Thus, those who want to be guided should listen to God, in other words should obey God and His messenger to be guided by Him, and if we can really reflect on this crucial command of God, which has been repeated more than 25 times in the Quran will ensure our return to the eternal place of happiness.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.