There are 23 instances of nakaha in the Quran in 4 derived forms found in 19 verses across 6 suras having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept in many cases to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:
|Form||Instances||Arabic text||Literal meanings||No of occurrences||Grammatical form|
|1||nakaha||نَكَحَ||To marry||14||Verb form I|
|2||tunkihu||تُنكِحُ||To get married||3||Verb form IV|
|3||yastankiha||يَسْتَنكِحَ||To marry||1||Verb form X|
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com
Instances of nakaha
[2:221] And you do not marry (wa-laa-tankihuu) the idolatresses until they believe; and surely, a believing slave woman is better than an idolatress, even if she has pleased you. And you do not get married to the idolaters until they believe; and surely, a believing slave man is better than an idolater even if he has pleased you. Those – they invite to the Fire, while God invites to the Paradise and the forgiveness by His permission. And He clarifies His revelations for the people that they may take heed.
Note: The idol worshiping men and women are not lawful for the believing men and women even they may be attractive to the believers. Hence, when we choose our spouses, then we must pay attention to their religious faith to be invited by God to Paradise and His forgiveness.
[2:230] So if he divorces her, then she is not lawful for him after that until she marries (tankiha) a spouse other than him. Then if he (other husband) divorces her, then there is no sin for them that they return to each other if they believe that they can maintain God’s limits. And these are God’s limits, He clarifies them for a people who know.
Note: Marriage can be retreated twice but this verse refers to the third time divorce when divorcees cannot return to each other unless she has got married to another husband and then if he divorces her but third time remarriage making a fake husband is the violation of God’s law.
[2:232] And if you divorce the women, and they have completed their interim period, then do not prevent them from marrying (yankih’na) their (ex) husbands if they agree among themselves in fair manner. That is encouraged with it for anyone among you who believes in God and the Last Day, that is better for you and purer; and God knows while you do not know.
Note: The divorced couple can return to each other two times through remarriage after their divorce when the ex-wives are not required to get married to another husband.
[4:3] And if you fear that you cannot be just with the orphans, then marry (fa-inkihuu) what is suitable for you from the women two, and three, and four. But if you fear that you will not be fair, then only one, or what you rightfully possess. That is (even) better that you do not face (financial) hardship.
Note: In fact, there is no polygamy in Islam even though many non-Muslims believe it and some Muslims practice it, which is only permitted under crucial situation such as to ensure a fair justice with the orphans, and is permitted with widows to take care of their children (orphans).
[4:22] And do not marry (tankihuu) whom your fathers had married (nakaha) from the women, except what has already happened. Indeed, it is a lewdness, and an abhorrence, and an evil path.
Note: Any violation of this order involving the event that happened before the revelation of the Quran is not brought into consideration for enforcement.
[4:25] And whoever among you cannot afford to marry (yankiha) the free believing women, then from what is you rightfully possess (females slaves) of the believing young women. And God knows best of your faith. You are from another. So marry them (fa-inkihuuhunna) with permission of their family and give them their bridal reward (ujuurahunna) in a fair manner being chaste, not having illicit sex nor taking secret lovers. And when they are married (uh’sinna), then if they commit adultery, for them the punishment is half of what is for the free believing women. That is for him who fears committing sin among you and that you are patient, is better for you, and God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Note: Those who cannot afford the free believing women may marry from the believing slave women giving them a fair reward. Both spouses need to be chaste while the slave spouses if found to be unchaste, their punishment is half of the free believing women.
[4:127] And they seek to you (prophet) a ruling regarding the women, say: “God gives you (all) a ruling regarding them and what is being recited to you in the scripture regarding the female orphans you wish to marry them (tankihuuhunna), but have not given them what was decreed for them, and the weak of the children and to stand for the orphans with justice.” And whatever good you do, then indeed, God is aware of it.
Note: The ruling (guidelines) for the women is stated in the Quran. The orphan brides must be given their due payment and to stand for the orphans to treat them with justice.
[24:3] The adulterer will not marry (yankihu) except an adulteress or an idolatress, and the adulteress will not marry (yankihuhaa) except an adulterer or an idolater. And has been forbidden that for the believers.
Note: The marriage of the adulteresses and the idolatresses are prohibited with the believing men and that of the adulterers and the idolaters with the believing women are prohibited as well.
[33:49] O you who have believed, if you marry (nakahtumu) the believing women, then have divorced them before you touch them, then for you on them there is no waiting period to count for them. So, you provide for them and let them go in an amicable manner.
Note: There is no waiting period for the women who have been divorced before touching them by their husband.
[33:53] O you who have believed, do not enter the prophet’s homes except that you are invited for a meal, without awaiting its preparation. But when you are invited, you may enter, and when you finish eating, you shall leave, without staying for a conversation. This used to hurt the prophet, and he was shy to tell you. But God is not shy of the truth. And when you are to ask them (his wives) for anything, then ask them from behind a barrier. This is purer for your hearts and their hearts. And it is not for you to annoy the messenger of God, nor that should you marry (tankihuu) his wives after him. That, indeed would be a gross offense in the sight of God.
Note: There is teaching in the verse what we should reflect is God knows what is in our hearts and wants us to prevent from exceeding the limits falling into advantageous opportunity.
[60:10] O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, you shall test them. God is aware of their faith. If you know that they are believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers. They (women) are neither lawful for them (disbelievers), nor they (disbelievers) are lawful for them (women), and give them (disbelievers) what they have spent. And there is no blame on you if you marry them (women) (tankihuuhunna) when you have given them their (bridal) reward (ujuurahunna). And do not hold marriage with the disbelieving wives. And you may ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent. That is God’s judgment. He judges between you, and God is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Note: There is mention of bridal reward for the believing women for getting to marriage and of what the disbelievers have spent for their wives who left them. The disbelieving women are not lawful for the believing men while the believing women are not lawful for the disbelieving men. There is indication of enforcing the equitable judgment for both the believing and disbelieving husbands in regard to the spending for the believing and disbelieving married women.
Instances of tukihu
[2:221] And do not marry the idolatresses until they believe; and surely, a believing slave woman is better than an idolatress even if she has pleased you. And you not get married (wa-laa-tunkihuu) to the idolaters until they believe; and surely, a believing slave man is better than an idolater, even if he has pleased you. Those – they invite to the Fire, while God invites to the Paradise and forgiveness by His permission. And He clarifies His revelations for the people that they may take heed.
[24:32] And you shall get married (wa-ankihuu) who are the singles among you, and the righteous among your male and female slaves. If they are needy, God will enrich them from His bounty. And God is Bounteous, Knower.
Note: God wants both the free and the slave believing men and women to get married while He ensures that those who are needy will be supported from His bounty.
[28:27] He (Moses’ father in law) said: “I wish to get married you (Moses) (unkihaka) with one of these two daughters of mine on that you serve me for eight pilgrimage period of time (hijajin), while if you complete ten, then it is from yourself, and I do not wish to make difficult for you. You will find me God willing, of the righteous.”
Note: This verse indicates that Hajj is an old practice that passed down to us, which is the 6th pillar of the 6-pillar concept of Islam and the Quran being the 1st while some dispute that there is no link between the words, hijajin and Hajj except period of time (year) but we can resolve this dispute for this generation of people and for generations coming ahead reflecting on the sum of the digits of surah and verse number, which is 19 [2 + 8 + 2 + 7], a fact from the mathematical coding of Quran.
Instance of yastankiha
[33:50] O prophet, we have made lawful for you the wives to whom you have given their bridal reward (aatayta ujuurahunna), and whom you rightfully possess of those whom God has given to you, and the daughters of your father’s brothers, and the daughters of your father’s sisters, and the daughters of your mother’s brothers, and the daughters of your mother’s sisters who have emigrated with you, and any believing woman if she gives herself to the prophet when the prophet wishes to marry her (yastankihahaa), is only for you (prophet) but not for the believers. Certainly, we know what we have made obligatory for them with regard to their wives and whom they rightfully possess, that should not be a discomfort for you. And God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Note: Even the prophet was not given a waiver of paying the bridal reward while there was an exception for him to marry any believing woman from the categories made lawful for the believers as well as from 4 categories of women who are unlawful in marriage for the believers.
Instances of nikaah
[2:235] And there is no sin upon you with it about that you have announced a marriage engagement to the women (khit’bati al-nisaa-i), or you have concealed it within yourselves. God knows that you will mention to them, but you do not date them in private except that you speak a good discussion. And you do not consummate the marriage (al-nikaahi) until it reaches its end of the prescribed term. And you shall know that God knows what is within yourselves that you shall be aware of Him; and you shall know that God is Forgiving, Forbearing.
Note: The declaration of the engagement of marriage is not unlawful but the dating in a secret place without good reason and consummating marriage during the interim are unlawful while God is aware of what is in our hearts.
[2:237] And if you (men) divorce them (women) before you have touched them, while indeed, you have specified for them an obligation (fareedatan), then (give) half of what you have specified, except that they (female) forgo or the guardian of the marriage (al-nikaahi) forgoes. And that you forgo, is nearer to righteousness. And do not forget graciousness between you; indeed, God is Seer of what you do.
Note: God has commanded us to settle the bridal payment at the time of marriage, which is commonly known as “Mahr” or “Dirmahr”. While it is not a requirement that the bridal payment is to pay off on the upfront but must be paid out as specified if the marriage breaks unless the divorced women or their parties forgo it. If the marriage breaks before it is consummated, the payment would be half while the marriage should end in an amicable way.
[4:6] And test the orphans until they have reached the marriage (age) (al-nikaaha), then if you have perceived in them sound judgment, then deliver to them their wealth, and do not consume it extravagantly and hastily that they will grow up. And whoever is rich, then let him refrain (from consuming from it), and whoever is needy, then let him consume (from it) in a fair way. Then when you deliver to them their wealth, then take witnesses on them, and God is sufficient as a Reckoner.
Note: Orphans’ properties are to be delivered when they reach the marriage age. The rich should not consume from it while the needy may consume from it in a fair manner.
[24:33] And let be chaste those who cannot afford marriage (nikaahan) until God enriches them of His Bounty. And those who seek to be freed among your servants (to get married), then set them free if you know in them any good, and give them from the wealth of God which He has given you. And do not force your young women to the prostitution if they desire chastity that you may seek material gain in the life of the world. And whoever compels them, then indeed, God for their compulsion, is Forgiving, Merciful.
Note: Marriage is given to maintain chastity, is one of the required traits to become righteous. The believing slaves (servants) may get married being set free, even helping them from our provision given by God. No blame on those women who are compelled to the prostitution.
[24:60] And those reaching the menopause of the women who do not have desire for marriage (nikaahan), then it has not been any blame upon them that they have their garments without displaying of their body. And that they maintain modesty is better for them. And God is Hearer, Knower
Note: The elderly women do not require to cover their bodies like the younger women should do.
In 14 verses of the Quran across 6 suras God has commanded us for getting married, and if the relevant verse and sura numbers are added, the sum is a multiple of 19 => 1235 = 19×65 (details are shown in the table below:
Note: This mathematical confirmation is an explicit proof of the precise commandment of God for the believing men and women to get married who can afford it as a safe guard of their chastity.
Out of 23 instances of nikaah in different grammatical forms, 18 instances in the verb forms in 14 verses across 6 suras of the Quran provides an explicit proof of the commandment of getting married for the believing men and women. In addition, to better understand the message in the relevant verses as well as to follow what is right for us avoiding any violation to be righteous expecting joy and happiness in the Hereafter as our reward can be summarized as: (1) when the believing men and women are getting married are being invited to Paradise, (2) the divorcees may get remarried twice with their ex-husbands but for the third time the divorced women need to be married to another husband, then if he divorces her, (3) no polygamy in Islam except as an exception to be impartial with the orphans, (4) no sin for any violation of the marital law happened before the revelation of the Quran, (5) those who cannot afford the free believing women can marry the believing slave women giving them a fair bridal reward, (6) if the slave spouses are found unchaste, their punishment is half of the free unchaste spouses, (7) the orphan brides must be given their due bridal reward, (8) no waiting period for the divorcees who have not been touched by their ex-husbands, (9) God is aware of what is in peoples’ hearts and He prevents us from exceeding the limits falling into advantageous situation, (10) bridal reward is a requirement when the believing men and women get in marriage, (11) both the free and slave men and women are to get married while God would support the needy from His bounty, (12) Hajj is an old practice from the event of Moses’ marriage (13) the declaration of engagement of the marriage is lawful while dating in a secret place without good reason, and consummating marriage during the interim are unlawful, (14) the settlement of the bridal payment is required at the time of marriage but not the upfront payment, (15) the bridal payment requires to pay off as specified when the marriage breaks, and it is half if the marriage breaks without consummating it unless the divorced women and their parties forgo it, (16) Orphans’ properties are to be delivered when they reach the marriage age, (17) The marriage is a means for us to maintain chastity and (18) the elderly women having no desire for marriage are not required to cover their bodies like the younger women should do.
God wants His believing men and women to get married while marriage is a sacred bond and means to Paradise maintaining chastity throughout their lives using it as a safe guard. He also wants couples to stay together being faithful to each other providing options to break it when experiencing discontent, even the couple can return together after divorce through reconciliation. Thus, those who seek His mercy should get married to enjoy what He has given us as great gift.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.