[2:190] And you shall fight in the cause of God with those who fight you, but do not transgress. God does not love the transgressors.
[2:191] And you may kill them where you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out. Oppression is worse than killing. Do not fight them at the Sacred Masjid, unless they fight you in it. But if they fight you, then you may kill them. Such is the requital for the disbelievers.
[2:192] But if they cease, then God is Forgiving, Merciful.
[2:193] You shall fight them until the elimination of oppression and becoming the religion for God. But if they cease, then there will be no hostility except against the oppressors.
[2:216] Fighting is decreed for you while you hate it. But perhaps you may dislike something while it is good for you, and perhaps you may love something while it is bad for you. And God knows while you do not know.
Note: The believers shall fight for the cause of God until the elimination of oppression and the religion has been established for Him although they may not like it. But there is no fighting in the Sacred Masjid unless the disbelievers attack the believers as well as if the disbelievers cease fighting.
[2:217] They ask you about the sacred month whether there is fighting in it. Say: “Fighting is sacrilege in it, but repelling from the path of God and disbelieving in Him and the Sacred Masjid, and driving out its people is a greater sin with God while oppression is worse than killing.” And they will fight with you until they turn you away from your religion if they are able. And whoever among you turns away from his religion, then he dies while a disbeliever, then these has nullified their works in the worldly life and the Hereafter, and these are the people of the Fire, they will abide in it forever.
[2:244] And you shall fight in the cause of God, and know that God is Hearer, Knower.
[2:246] Did you not see to the leaders of Children of Israel after Moses, when they said to their prophet, “Choose for us a king that we may fight in the cause of God?” He said, “Would it not be likely that if fighting is decreed for you, you will not fight?” They said, “Why should we not fight in the cause of God, when we have been driven from our homes and our children?” Then, when fighting was decreed for them they turned away, except a few of them. And God is fully aware of the wicked.
[2:253] These are the messengers, we have preferred some of them over others; of them to whom God spoke, and He raised some of them in rank, and we gave Jesus the son of Mary the clear proofs and we supported him with the holy spirit. And had God willed, the people after them would not have fought after the proofs had come to them, but they disputed, some of them believed and some of them disbelieved. Had God willed they would not have fought, but God does whatever He intends.
Note: Fighting is sacrilege in the sacred months but repelling from the path of God as well as disbelieving in Him and the Sacred Masjid, and driving out its people is a great sin. When the believers are oppressed, they express their willingness to go for fighting but if it is decreed for them, they would not have fought. Fighting is decreed as the people has disputed the proofs that came down through His messengers.
[3:13] There was a sign for you in the two groups that met. One was fighting in the cause of God, and the other was the disbelieving. They saw them twice of them with their eyes. And God supports with His help whom He wills. Indeed, in that is a lesson for those who possess vision.
[3:111] They can never harm you except hurting. But if they fight you, they will turn the backs to you, then they will not be helped.
[3:121] And when you left from your family to prepare the believers to assign their positions for the battle. And God is Hearer, Knower.
[3:146] And how many a prophet had fought with a large number of God-fearing with him. But they did not lose courage for what befell them in the cause of God nor did they become weak nor did they surrender. And God loves the steadfast.
[3:167] And He has exposed who are the hypocrites, and it was said to them, “Come, fight in the cause of God, or defend.” They said, “If we knew fighting, we would have followed you.” They were, that day closer to disbelief than they were to belief. What they say with their mouths, is not in their hearts, but God is aware of what they conceal.
[3:195] Their Lord responded to them: “I do not waste any work of any worker from you, be you male or female, each of you being from the other. So, those who emigrated and were driven-out from their homes and were harmed in My cause, and they fought and were killed, I will surely, remit for them their evil deeds and admit them to gardens with rivers flowing beneath; a reward from God; and God with Him is the best reward.”
Note: War plan and exposure of hypocrites and promise of a great reward from God for those who are killed in the battle for the cause of God while those who turn their back from the battle would not be helped.
[4:74] So let fight in the cause of God with those who sell the life of the world for the Hereafter. And whoever fights in the cause of God and is killed or achieves victory, then we will soon grant him a great reward.
[4:75] And why do you not fight in the cause of God, when the weak among the men and women, and the children who say: “Our Lord, take us out of this town whose people are the oppressors, and appoint for us from You a protector, and appoint for us from You a helper”
[4:76] Those who believe fight in the cause of God but those who disbelieve fight in the cause of evil; so fight the supporters of the Satan, indeed, the planning of the Satan is weak.
[4:77] Have you not seen those to whom was said: “Restrain your hands, and observe the Contact Prayer and give the Obligatory Charity?.” Then when fighting was decreed for them, a group of them feared the people as much as they feared God or even more. And they said: “Our Lord, why have You decreed fighting for us? Why not You respite us till another time.” Say: “Enjoyment of the world is little while the Hereafter is better for those who fear God, and you will not be wronged in the least.”
[4:84] You shall fight for the cause of God; you are not responsible except yourself, and urge the believers, perhaps God will restrain the might of those who disbelieved. And God is stronger in might and in punishment.
[4:90] Except those who reach a people between whom you have a treaty, or those who come to you restraining their hearts to fight you or to fight their own people. And if God willed, He would have given them strength and they would have fought you. But if they leave you, and do not fight you, and they offer you peace; then God does not make for you a way against them.
Note: God grants a great reward for those who fight in His cause whether they are killed or achieve victory while the disbelievers fight in the cause of evil.
[5:24] They said: “O Moses, we will never enter it as long as they are in it. So go you and your Lord, and fight, we will stay right here!”
Note: Those who believed with Moses were not willing to fight.
[8:16] And whoever turns his back to them on that day except a strategy of battle or joins to a group; then he has incurred wrath of God, and his abode is Hell, a miserable destiny.
[8:39] And you shall fight them until there is no oppression, and the religion is established for God. But if they cease, then God is Seer of what they do.
[8:65] O prophet, you shall urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they will defeat two hundred, and if there are a hundred of you, they will defeat a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they are a people who do not understand.
Note: Those who turn back in the battle without a battle plan have incurred God’s wrath.
[9:12] And if they break their oaths after making their treaty and they denounce your religion; then you shall fight the leaders of disbelief, indeed, they are not to oaths of them, so that they may cease.
[9:13] Will you not fight a people who broke their oaths and intended to drive out the messenger, and they were the ones who attacked you first? Do you fear them? But God is the most reverent that you should fear Him if you are believers.
[9:14] You shall fight them; God will punish them by your hands and humiliate them and grant you victory over them and heal the chests of a people of the believers.
[9:29] You shall fight those who do not believe in God or the last day, nor forbid what God and His messenger have made unlawful, nor admit the religion of truth of those who have been given the scripture; until they pay the fine, willingly or unwillingly and they are subdued.
[9:30] The Jews said: “Ezra is the son of God,” while the Christians said: “The Messiah is the son of God.” Such is their utterances with their mouths, they imitate the sayings of those who disbelieved before them. God will fight them. They are deluded from the truth!
[9:36] The count of the months with God is twelve months in ordinance of God from the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the perfect religion, so do not wrong yourselves therein. And you shall fight the idol worshipers all together as they fight you all together, and know that God is with the righteous.
[9:83] If God returns you to a group of them, and they ask your permission to go out, then say: “You will not come with me ever; nor will you fight any enemy with me. You have chosen staying behind the first time, so stay with those who remain behind.”
[9:111] God has purchased the lives and wealth of the believers in exchange for Paradise for them. They fight in the cause of God while they kill and are killed. A true promise of Him in the Torah and the Injeel and the Quran. And who is more truthful to his promise than God? So rejoice in your transaction that you have contracted in it, and such is the greatest success.
[9:123] O you who believe, you shall fight the disbelievers who are close to you and let them find sternness in you, and know that God is with the righteous.
Note: You shall fight those who break their treaty, disbelieve in God, forbid what God has made lawful, and denounce your religion as God wishes to punish and humiliate them by your hands whereas in certain case He will punish and humiliate His enemies by Himself. Those who fight in the cause of God and if they kill or get killed will receive reward from God as He purchased lives and wealth of the believers in exchange of Paradise but do not fight them if they cease.
[22:39] Permission is given to those who have been persecuted to fight. And God is certainly able to give them victory.
Note: Those who are being prosecuted will fight, and God will give them victory.
[28:15] And he entered the city unexpectedly without being noticed by its people and found two men were fighting therein; one was from his people and the other was from his enemies. And the one from his people called him for help against his enemy. So Moses punched him and killed him. He said, “This is the work of the devil; he is a real enemy, who undoubtedly leads astray.”
Note: You shall fight for the party that is being oppressed in any conflict between two parties.
[33:20] They think that the confederates are not gone. And if the confederates should come, they wish that they would in the desert, asking news about you. Even if they were among you, they would not have fought except very little.
[33:25] And God turned back those who disbelieved with their rage, they gained no good. And God is sufficient for the believers in the battle. Thus, God is Powerful, Almighty.
Note: God supports those who fight in His cause to defeat the disbelievers.
[47:20] Those who believed said: “Why has not a sura been revealed?” But when a precise sura is sent down, and fighting is mentioned in it, you see those who have a disease in their hearts look at you, as if death had already come to them. But obedience is more appropriate for them.
Note: Those who have disease in their hearts are afraid of fighting as if death has already come to them.
[48:16] Say to those of the Arabs who lagged behind: “You will be called to fight a people who possess a great military skill, until they surrender. Then if you obey, God will grant you a good reward, but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful punishment.”
[48:22] And if you fight those who disbelieve, they would turn around and flee. then they would not find any protector nor any helper.
Note: If the believers obey when they are called to fight without turning back, God will grant them a good reward.
[49:9] And if two parties of believers fight each other, make peace between them; then if after that, one of them oppresses the other, fight the party that oppresses until it returns to the command of God. Then if it returns, make peace between them with equity, and act justly. Indeed, God loves the just.
Note: You shall even fight for the party that is being oppressed in case of any conflict between two parties of the believers.
[57:10] And why do you not spend in the cause of God, while all wealth belongs to God in the heavens and the earth? Those of you who spent and fought before the victory are not equal to those who did so later. They are greater in rank than those who spent and fought afterwards. And to all God has promised good. And God is Cognizant of what you do.
Note: Those who spend and fight before the victory will have a higher status with God.
[59:11] Have you seen those who are hypocrites say to their brothers who disbelieve among the people of the scripture: “If you are driven out, we will go out with you, and will never obey anyone else. If you fight, we will surely be on your side.” God bears witness that they are surely liars.
[59:12] If they were driven out, they would not have gone out with them, and if anyone fought them, they would not have supported them. Even if they supported them, they would have turned around and fled. Then they would not be helped.
[59:14] They will not fight you all unless they are in fortified towns, or from behind walls. Their might appears formidable among themselves. You would think that they are united, when in fact, their hearts are divided. That is because they are a people who do not understand.
[60:8] God does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of the religion nor do they drive you out of your homes that you may deal with them kindly and justly. God, indeed loves those who act justly.
[60:9] God only forbids you from those who fight you because of the religion, and drive you out of your homes, and support in driving you out if you make them allies. And those who make them allies, then they are the transgressors.
Note: You shall fight those who fight you for your religion and driving you out of your homes but be nice and just with those who do not do so.
[61:4] God loves those who fight in His cause in one column, as if they are like bricks in a wall.
Note: God love those who fight all together in His cause as it increases strength to defeat the enemies.
[63:4] And when you see them, you may be pleased by their looks. And when they speak, you may listen to their speeches, as if they are pieces of wood propped up. They think that every call is intended for them. These are the real enemies; beware of them. God fight them; How are they deviated?
Note: There are a people who may please you by their look and speaking but they are the real enemies and God will punish and humiliate them by Himself.
[73:20] Your Lord knows that you implore a little less than two thirds of the night, or half of it, or one third of it, and so do a group of those who are with you, and God has designed the night and the day. He knows that you will not be able to keep it up, so He pardons you, but recite what you can of the Quran. He knows that there will be sick among you, and others are traveling in the land seeking of God’s bounty, and others are fighting in the cause of God. So recite what you can of it, and observe the Contact Prayers, pay the Obligatory Charity and give God a loan of righteousness. And whatever good you send ahead on behalf of your souls, you will find it with God, it will be better and a greater reward. And seek forgiveness of God, indeed, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Note: God wants us to implore Him and study the Quran in every night as much as we can. But He has exempted those who are traveling seeking His bounty, who are sick or who are fighting in His cause. But there is no exemption of the believers from observing Salah, paying Zakah, giving God a loan of righteousness, and seeking His forgiveness in a regular basis to deserve a better reward with Him reflecting on His two great attributes that God is Forgiving, Merciful.
The Quran has given us details of fighting in 51 verses across 18 suras. If the digits of sura # and verse # where the instance of qatal (fighting) is found without repetition in each verse and the instance of in’tahaw (ceasefire) found in 2:192 are added, the sum is a multiple of 19 => 4655 = 19 x 245 (See Table below for details).
Note: Included an instance of intahaw in 2:192 meaning cease, which has reference to both preceding and proceeding verses to define the war rules.
There are references of fighting in 51 verses across 18 suras in the Quran. The details that are covered in these verses are:
(1) Objectives – God has decreed fighting as He wishes to punish and humiliate the disbelievers by the hands of true believers as well as by Himself. He has exposed the hypocrites, what they say is not in their hearts as well as those who have disease in their hearts. There are also a people who may please you by their look and speaking but they are the real enemies. When the believers are oppressed, they had expressed their intention to go for fighting but when it was decreed for them, they had not fought. He has sent messengers from time to time with proofs and if the people did not dispute themselves on His proofs regarding His religion, there would not be any fighting.
(2) War rules and restrictions – The believers shall fight in the cause of God until the elimination of oppression and the religion has been established for Him although they may not like it. You shall fight those who break their treaty, disbelieve in God, forbid what God has made lawful, and denounce your religion without being transgressors. You shall fight those who fight you for your religion and driving you out of your homes but be nice and just with those who do not do so. You shall fight for the party that is being oppressed in case of any conflict between two parties. But there is no fighting in the Sacred Masjid unless the disbelievers attack the believers as well as if the disbelievers cease fighting while fighting is sacrilege in the sacred months.
(3) War plan and victory – Those who are being prosecuted will fight, and God will give them victory. God supports those who fight in His cause to defeat the disbelievers. God loves those who fight all together in His cause as it increases strength to defeat the enemies.
(4) Reward and punishment – God grants a great reward to those who fight in His cause whether they kill or are killed or achieve victory while the disbelievers will be punished as they fight in the cause of evil. Those who turn their back from the battle unless it is a war plan would not be helped as well as have incurred God’s wrath. Those who fight in the cause of God and if they kill or get killed will receive reward from God as He purchased lives and wealth of the believers in exchange of Paradise. However, those who spend and fight before the victory will have a higher status with God.
Fighting was a great concern of the believers at the time of revealing of the Quran but when they were prevented from practicing God’s religion freely as well as to eliminate aggression and oppression. We live in a different world and we must understand and apply the war rules and restrictions that befit to the era that we live now as Islam is a progressive religion of God. There are international bodies and forums to ensure political, economic and religious freedom of the people for peaceful living in this world limiting any threat of war and the Quran strongly support it. Thus, we have the opportunities to resolve any issue or dispute by negotiating through the world bodies while on the other hand, it is the duty of the state to preserve and protect the right of any citizen to practice their religion in freedom. However, misinterpretation and innovations are also found in the commandment of fighting. There are some groups who have entirely invented their own religion but claim that they belong to Islam being Muslims while they are making lives difficult of their fellow Muslims. They do not only take innocent lives but also advocate their members to kill themselves in the cause of God to enter Paradise for eternal happiness. The proof of the instances of fighting literally separated and mathematically confirmed is that they go against God’s words – the Quran. Those who disobey the commandment in the Quran and use any other sources besides it, then their actions are not “Islamic” being Muslims. They belong to what they have invented as their religion but for sure, not God’s religion as mentioned in the Quran. Thus, taking innocent lives of others is a murder and selves killing to kill others expecting to go to Paradise is a suicide, which are horrendous crimes as fighting is absolutely in the cause of God that we find in the Quran.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.