- Ta Ha (20:1)
Note: Ta Ha. as an oath of God being at the beginning of the sura affirms the miraculous story of Moses in the sura including other events and commandments stated in it. However, the initial Ta Ha prefixes Sura 20 while the initial Ta Seen prefixes sura 27 and the initial Ta Seen Meem prefixes its surrounding suras 26 & 28. The initial Ha is also found in sura 19. Thus, an intricate interlocking relationship links these overlapping Quranic Initials produce a total which is a multiple of 19 => 1767 = 19x93. The interlocking initials H, TH, TS and TSM prefix suras describing the miracles of Moses, Jesus, and the uncommon occurrences surrounding Solomon and his jinns.
The Quran is a revelation from the Creator, the Most Gracious
- We did not reveal the Quran to you to cause any distressed to you (20:2). Except as a reminder to the reverent (20:3). A revelation from the Creator of the earth and the high heavens (20:4). The Most Gracious Who is established on the Throne (20:5). To Him belongs everything in the heavens, and the earth, and everything between them, and everything beneath the ground (20:6). Whether you declare anything but He knows the secret, and even what is more hidden (20:7). God: there is no other god besides Him. To Him belong the most beautiful names (20:8).
Note: The Quran is from the Creator of the earth and the high heavens as well as the Most Gracious established on the throne to remind the reverent. God knows the secret, and there is no other god besides He who has the most beautiful names.
The Event of the Mount (History of Moses)
- Have you noted the history of Moses? (20:9). When he saw a fire, he said to his family, “Stay here. I have seen a fire. Maybe I can bring something therefrom or find some guidance at the fire.” (20:10). When he came to it, he was called, “O, Moses (20:11). I am your Lord; take off your sandals. You are in the sacred valley of Tuwa (20:12). I have chosen you, so listen to what is being revealed (20:13). I am God; there is no other god beside Me. You shall worship Me, and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) to remember Me (20:14). The Hour is surely coming; I will keep it almost hidden, for each soul must be paid for its works (20:15). Do not be diverted from it by those who do not believe in it – those who pursue their own opinions – lest you fall (20:16).
- “What is in your right hand, O Moses?” (20:17). He said, “This is my staff. I lean on it, herd my sheep with it, and I use it for other purposes.” (20:18). He said, “Throw it down, O’ Moses.” (20:19). He threw it down, whereupon it turned into a moving serpent (20:20). He said, “Pick it up; do not be afraid. We will return it to its original state (20:21). And place your hand under your arm; it will come out white without a blemish; another proof (20:22). We thus show you some of our great signs.”(20:23).
Note: God showed Moses some of His great signs when he physically spoke to Him.
- “Go to Pharaoh, for he has transgressed.” (20:24). He said, “My Lord, expand my breast for me (20:25).And make my task easy for me (20:26). And untie a knot from my tongue (20:27). So they can understand my speech (20:28). And appoint an assistant for me from my family(20:29). Aaron, my brother (20:30). Strengthen me with him (20:31). Let him be my partner in this task (20:32). That we may glorify You enough (20:33). And commemorate You enough (20:34). You are Seer of us.” (20:35). He said, “Your request is granted, O Moses (20:36).
Note: Moses’s request was granted when he asked for support to face with Pharaoh, a great tyrant.
- “We have blessed you another time (20:37). When we revealed to your mother what we revealed (20:38). That `Put him into the box, then throw him into the river. The river will throw him onto the shore, to be picked up by an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his.’ I showered you with love from Me, and that you shall be raised under My eye (20:39). Your sister walked to them and said, `I can tell you about a nursing mother who can take good care of him.’ We thus returned you to your mother, that she may be happy and stop worrying. And when you killed a person, we saved you from the grievous consequences; indeed we tested you thoroughly. You stayed years with the people of Midyan, and now you have come back in accordance with a precise plan, O Moses (20:40).
Note: Moses had been favored in several occasions.
- I have chosen you for Myself.” (20:41). Go, you and your brother with My signs, and do not waver in remembering Me” (20:42).”Go, both of you to Pharaoh, indeed, he has transgressed (20:43).Speak to him nicely; he may take heed, or become reverent.” (20:44). They said, “Our Lord, we fear lest he may attack us, or transgress.”(20:45). He said, “Do not be afraid, for I will be with you, listening and watching (20:46). Go to him and say, `We are two messengers from your Lord. Let the Children of Israel go with us. You must refrain from persecuting them. We bring a sign from your Lord, and peace be upon those who follow the guidance (20:47). We have been inspired that the retribution will inevitably afflict those who deny and turn away.’ ” (20:48).
Note: Moses was commanded to go to Pharaoh with his brother, Aaron to show him a sign of God to prevent him from persecuting the Children of Israel.
- He said, “Who is your Lord for both, O Moses.” (20:49). He said, “Our Lord is the One who gave everything to its form, and then guided.” (20:50). He said, “What about the past generations?” (20:51). He said, “Its knowledge is with my Lord in a record. My Lord does not error forget.” (20:52).
Note: Moses’s solid belief about God was tested and confirmed.
God is the One who has made the earth habitable for us
- He is the One who made for you the earth habitable and made ways for you in it, and He sent down water from the sky, thus, we brought out with it pairs of diverse plants (20:53). Eat and raise your livestock. These are sufficient proofs for those who possess intelligence (20:54). From it we created you, into it we return you, and from it we bring you out once again (20:55).
Note: We are created from earth, we are returning into it and we will be brought out of it.
Moses and Aaron with Pharaoh and his magicians
- We showed him all our proofs, but he denied and refused (20:56). He said, “Did you come here to take us out of our land with your magic, O Moses? (20:57). “We will surely show you similar magic. Therefore, make an appointment between us and you that neither we, nor you will violate; in a neutral place.” (20:58). He said, “Your appointment is the day of festival, and that the people will be assembled in the forenoon.” (20:59). Then Pharaoh went away and made his plan, then came (20:60). Moses said to them, “Woe to you. Do not fabricate lies about God, lest you are destroyed by His punishment and surely, he who fabricates will fail.” (20:61). They disputed their matter among them and they kept secret their conversation (20:62). They said, “These two are no more than magicians who wish to take you out of your land with their magic, and to destroy your best way of life (20:63). Make your plan and come as united. Whoever beats will be the winner today.” (20:64). They said, “O Moses, either you throw, or we will be the first to throw.” (20:65). He said, ” No, you throw.” Then their ropes and staffs seemed to him by their magic that they were moving (20:66). Moses harbored some fear in him (20:67). We said, “Do not fear. You will be the winner (20:68). Throw what is in your right hand, and it will swallow what they made. What they made is a trick of a magician and the magician will not succeed whatever he does.” (20:69). The magicians fell prostrate and said, “We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.” (20:70).
Note: God strengthened Moses when he was with the magicians and he became the winner as the magicians fell prostrate and believed in the Lord of Moses and Aaron by the grace of God.
Pharaoh and the magicians
- He said, “Have you believed to him without taking my permission? He is surely your chief who taught you magic. So, I will cut off your hands and feet from alternate sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of the palm trees, and you will come to know which of us is greater in retribution and more lasting!” (20:71). They said, “We will not prefer you over the clear proofs that have come to us, and over the One who created us. Therefore, issue whatever judgment you wish to issue. You can only issue judgment in this worldly life (20:72). We have believed in our Lordthat He may forgive us our sins, and the magic that you forced us to perform. God is far better and everlasting.” (20:73).
Note: The magicians found the truth that made them believers in God and their belief was so firm that they were not even afraid of any punishment enforced by Pharaoh.
Requital on the Day of Judgment
- He who comes to his Lord guilty will incur Hell, wherein he never dies, nor stays alive (20:74). But he who comes to Him as a believer who had done righteous works, for them will have the high ranks (20:75). The gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow, will be their abode forever. Such is the reward for those who purify themselves (20:76).
Note: The destination of the guilty is Hell while the destination of the righteous is the gardens of Eden.
Favors to the people of Israel
- We inspired Moses: “Travel by night with My servants, and make for them a dry path through the sea without fearing from being overtaken, nor being afraid (of drowning).” (20:77). Then Pharaoh pursued them with his troops, but the sea covered them, that was a miserable covering for them (20:78). Thus, Pharaoh led his people astray instead, to guide them (20:79). O Children of Israel, we delivered you from your enemy, we addressed you on the right side of the Mount, and we sent down to you manna and quails (20:80). Eat from the good things that we have provided for you, and do not transgress, lest you incur My wrath. Whoever has incurred My wrath is fallen (20:81). I am surely forgiving for those who repent, believe and lead a righteous life, then remain guided (20:82).
Note: God bestowed many favors on the Children of Israel to lead them to the right path. However, anyone of them who has gone astray but has repented and led a righteous life, God is forgiving for him.
People of Moses were tested when he was away from them
- “What has made you to hasten from your people, O Moses?” (20:83). He said, “They are my close associates. I have hastened to You my Lord, that You may be pleased (20:84). He said, “We have put your people to the test after you left, but the Samarian misled them.” (20:85).
Note: The people of Moses were tested when he was away from them and Samarian misled them.
Moses returned to his people being angry and disappointed
- Moses returned to his people, angry and disappointed. He said, “O my people, did your Lord not promise you a fair promise? Did the promise seem to you too long? Or did you desire that wrath should descend upon you from your Lord and that you broke your promise with me?” (20:86). They said, “We did not break the promise to you on our will. But we were loaded down with the jewelry of the people, so we threw them down and this is what the Samarian suggested.” (20:87). He made for them a calf that emitted sound.Then they said, “This is your god, and the god of Moses, but he had forgotten.” (20:88). Did they not see that it neither responded to them, nor possessed any power to harm them, or benefit them? (20:89). And Aaron had told them, “O my people, you are being tested with it. Your only Lord is the Most Gracious. So follow meand obey my command.” (20:90). They said, “We will remain devoted to it until Moses comes back to us.” (20:91).
Note: Moses became angry when he found that his people had gone astray by worshipping a statue of calf even disobeying Aaron’s order.
- He said, “O Aaron, what prevented you, when you saw them going astray (20:92). Do you not follow me? or have you disobeyed my command?” (20:93). He said, “O son of my mother; do not grab me by my beard nor my head. I feared that you would say, `You have divided the Children of Israel, and have not followedmy order.’ ”(20:94).
Note: Moses also became angry with his brother, Aaron but Aaron explained to him that it was not his fault and he tried his best to stay them in the right path.
- He said, “What is the matter with you, O Samarian?” (20:95). He said, “I saw what they did not see. I grabbed a fistful from where the messenger was standing and threw it. This is what my mind inspired me to do.” (20:96). He said, “Then go, for you in this life, you will say, “I am not to be touched”. But you will have an appointed time that you can never evade. Look at your god that you remain devoted to, we will burn it and scatter its particles into the sea.” (20:97). Your only god is God, the One, there is no other god except He. His knowledge encompasses all things (20:98).
Note: Moses also became angry with Samarian and Samarian explained to him what he did to misguide the people. Moses let him know that now he is to wait for the consequence. But the statue of the calf was burnt and its pieces were thrown into the sea.
News from the Past
- We thus narrate to you some news from the past, and we have given you a reminder from us (20:99). Whoever turns away from it, then he will carry a load on the Day of Resurrection (20:100). Carrying such load is eternal and evil on the Day of Resurrection (20:101). The day, the horn is blown and we will gather the guilty on that day blue-eyed (20:102). They will whisper among themselves, “You have stayed no more than ten days!” (20:103). We are fully aware of their utterances. The most accurate among them will say, “You have stayed no more than a day.” (20:104).
Note: The reminder that comes with the news from the past confirms the consequence of those who turn away from it on the day when the horn will be blown.
Events on the Day of Resurrection
- They ask you about the mountains. Say, “My Lord will disintegrate them into pieces (20:105). He will leave it like a level plain land (20:106). You will see neither uphill nor downhill.” (20:107) On that day, they will follow the caller without deviation from it and the voices will be humbled for the Most Gracious; you will hear nothing except a whisper (20:108). On that day, there is no benefit of intercession except whom permitted by the Most Gracious that does conform to His will (20:109). He knows their past and their future, while they do not encompass His knowledge (20:110). All faces will be humbled to the Living, the Eternal but who carried wickedness will fail (20:11). And who did righteous works, being a believer will have no fear of injustice or deprivation (20:112). We thus revealed it, an Arabic Quran, and we mentioned in it the warnings, that they may fear, or it may serve as a reminder for them (20:113). High above all is God, the King, the True. Do not hasten with the Quran before its revelation is completed to you (Muhammad), and say, “My Lord, increase my knowledge.” (20:114).
Note: The events of the day are detailed out indicating no benefit from intercession. The prophet has been warned not to hasten with the Quran before its revelation is completed to him. He has also been reminded to ask God for increasing his knowledge to stay in the right path.
Heavenly Disputes (Events Connected with the Great Feud)
- We tested Adam in the past, but he forgot, and we found him indecisive (20:115). When we said to the angels, “Fall prostrate before Adam.”, they fell prostrate, except the Satan; he refused (20:116). Then we said, “O Adam, this is an enemy of you and your wife. Do not let him evict you from Paradise, lest you become miserable (20:117). You will have no hunger therein, nor will you go unclothed (20:118). Nor will you suffer from thirst therein, nor suffer from any heat.” (20:119).But the devil whispered to him, he said, “O Adam, shall I show you the tree of eternity and a kingdom that will never end?” (20:120). Then they both ate from it, whereupon their bodies became visible to them, and they tried to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise. Adam disobeyed his Lord, and thus, he erred (20:121). Subsequently, his Lord chose him, turned to him with mercy, and guided him (20:122). He said, “Go down therefrom, all of you. You are enemies of one another. When guidance comes to you from Me, anyone who follows My guidance will not go astray, nor suffer any misery (20:123).
Note: The Heavenly disputes are explained to inform us our first life as well as to understand why we are on earth.
The consequences of the Disbelievers on the Day of Resurrection
- “But whoever turns away from My reminder, he will have a miserable life, and we resurrect him blind on the Day of Resurrection.” (20:124). He will say, “My Lord, why have You raised me blind while I had sight?” (20:125). He will say, “It is such that you forgot our revelations when they came to you, and today,you are forgotten.” (20:126). We, thus requite anyonewho transgresses and does not believe in the revelations of their Lord. The retribution in the Hereafter is far worse and everlasting (20:127). Has not it guided them how many generations we have annihilated before them that they are walking now in their homes? Indeed, in that, there are signs for those who possess intelligence (128).And had it not been for a word already given by your Lord that there is an appointed time, they would have been requited immediately (20:129).
Note: There are signs and proofs that can be found in the reminder to guide them to the right path and those who disregard them they cannot evade the punishment on the Day of Resurrection.
The prophet was asked to observe Salat including his family
- Therefore, be patient to what they say, and glorify your Lord by praising Him before the rising of the sun and before its setting as well as during the part of the night, and glorify at both ends of the day, that you may be thankful (20:130). And do not look at what we have given others as luxury of this worldly life whereby we may test them with it but the provision of your Lord is far better and everlasting (20:131). And you shall enjoin your family to adhere with the Contact Prayers (Salat) as well as to be steadfast in it. We do not ask you for any provisions as we provide for you. And the ultimate gain is the righteousness (20:132).
Note: The prophet was asked to be patient in all his circumstances, and to glorify with praise his Lord before the rising of the sun (Fajr) and before its setting (Asr), during the part of the night (Maghrib and Isha) and at both ends of the day (Dhuhur) to be thankful to Him as well as to enjoin his family to do the same, which is the way to achieve righteousness.
The disbelievers asked prophet to bring a miracle
- They said, “Why does he not bring us a miracle from his Lord?” Has not a proof come to them what was in the previous scriptures (20:133)? Had we destroyed them with retribution before this, they would have said, “Our Lord, had You sent a messenger to us, we would have followed Your revelations before we are humiliated and shamed.” (20:134). Say, “All are waiting, so wait; you will know who are the people of the straight path, and who are guided.” (20:135).
In conclusion, the story of Moses with God, Pharaoh and his people is highlighted in the sura. But the most unusual event is God directly spoke to Moses and gave him certain miracles and commands. Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh to show him a sign of God but he denied it to be a magic and arranged for a contest with his magicians. In the contest Moses was the winner by the grace of God and the magicians fell prostrate and believed in the Lord of Moses and Aaron, even they disregarded any punishment to be enforced by Pharaoh. However, when he returned to his people, he found them astray for worshipping a statue of calf made by Samarian. He informed Samarian about his consequence and destroyed the statue of calf and scattered its pieces into the sea.
The events on the promised day and the consequences of the disbelievers on that day are stated including the matters related to the Heavenly disputes at our first life letting us know that Satan is our great enemy. He was not only our enemy for evicting us from the Heaven but also he is our enemy in the worldly life for misguiding us to lead to Hell as promised with God.
An Arabic Quran is revealed with warnings and signs that may serve as a reminder for them who wish to avoid the painful retribution on the Day of Resurrection through worshipping God alone. The prophet was asked not to hasten with the Quran before its revelation is completed to him and to pray, “My Lord, increase my knowledge.” to stay in the right path. He was also asked to be patient in the face of the utterances of the disbelievers and to observe Salat 5 times at day and night to glorify and praise his Lord as well as to enjoin his family to do the same to achieve righteousness. However, we all are waiting to come to know who are in the straight path as well as who are the guided.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.