The Quran has detailed out all the ceremonial acts of Hajj along with the historical events. There is a clear indication that the ceremonial acts of Hajj are limited to the Sacred House and the locations adjacent to it. However, Hajj is an annual event that begins with the birth of new moon (2:189), which can be observed in any time of the known months as confirmed from the Quran maintaining basic requirements throughout the Hajj (2:197):
[2:189] They ask you about the new moons. Say, “They are measures of timing for the people as well as for the Hajj.” And it is not righteousness that you come to the houses from their backs, but it is righteous for the one who fears God and comes to the houses from their doors, and you shall fear God so that you may be successful.
Note: The timing of Hajj is determined by the lunar calendar and the birth of the new moon signals the beginning of Hajj. Thus, when God has decreed any rite for us, He has also given us the way to fulfill it so that we do not have to beat around the bush.
[2:197] The Hajj can be performed in the specified months. So whoever decides to perform the Hajj therein, then there shall be no sexual relations, no wickedness and no vain arguments throughout the Hajj. And whatever good you do, God is aware of it; and bring provision, indeed, the best provision is righteousness. And you shall fear Me O people of understanding.
Note: Hajj can be performed in any of the specified months while sexual intercourse, misconduct and arguments are prohibited.
War rules during Hajj season
In addition to maintaining basic requirements, there are certain things that have been made unlawful during hajj time, and fighting is one of them with an exception of taking equivalent retaliation on the event of aggression and oppression by the enemies of God.
[2:217] They ask you about the sacred month whether there is fighting in it. Say: “Fighting is sacrilege in it, but repelling from the path of God and disbelieving in Him and the Sacred Masjid, and driving out its people is a greater sin with God while oppression is worse than killing.” And they will fight with you until they turn you away from your religion if they are able. And whoever among you turns away from his religion, then he dies while a disbeliever, then these has nullified their works in the worldly life and the Hereafter, and these are the people of the Fire, they will abide in it forever.
[2:194] The sacred month is the sacred month but the violations are subjected to just retribution. So anyone who transgressed upon you, then you shall transgress upon him in the same manner as he transgressed upon you. And you shall fear God and should know that God is with the righteous.
[9:36] The count of the months with God is twelve months in ordinance of God from the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the perfect religion, so do not wrong yourselves therein. And fight the idol worshipers all together as they fight you all together, and know that God is with the righteous
Note: Four months are sacred in which the believers should not do wrong to their souls by fighting with the idol worshipers. However, fighting is only permitted for the equivalent response when they fight with the believers.
War rules outside of Hajj season
Fighting is allowed for those who follow the religion of God outside of Hajj season under certain conditions. But if they violate the conditions, they will be transgressors while God does not love the transgressors. However, the rules of war are different from those during the Hajj session that have reflected in the following subset of the Quranic verses:
[2:190] And you shall fight in the cause of God with those who fight you, but do not transgress. God does not love the transgressors.
[2:191] And you may kill them where you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out. Oppression is worse than killing. Do not fight them at the Sacred Masjid, unless they fight you in it. But if they fight you, then you may kill them. Such is the requital for the disbelievers.
[2:192] But if they cease, then God is Forgiving, Merciful.
[2:193] You shall fight them until the elimination of oppression and becoming the religion for God. But if they cease, then there will be no hostility except against the oppressors.
Note: Fighting is permitted in the cause of God, while aggression and oppression are strongly condemned in the Quran. But God is also forgiving and merciful upon those who cease fighting while the disbelievers are in war with the believers.
[9:5] But when the sacred months have passed, then you may kill the idol worshippers wherever you find them, and attack and surround them, and make an ambush against them at every point. But if they repent, and observe the Contact Prayer, and pay the Obligatory Charity, then you shall let them go to their way. Indeed, God is Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Note: The believers are to make all efforts to avoid fighting during the sacred months of Hajj but when the sacred months have passed, the believers will try to defeat the idol worshippers by all means even killing them for the cause of God. However, if the idol worshippers repent and return to the paths of God, then there would be no enmity with them as God is forgiving, merciful.
The Quran details many proofs for the believers and its mathematical proof allows them to know every word in it is true to strengthen their faith and trust in God being a source of knowledge, a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe. However, here is a mathematical proof of fighting even with a subset of verses around Hajj and the sacred months to confirm both war rules inside and outside of Hajj.
Note: In the above table, 2:189 & 197 denotes the beginning and ending of Hajj. 2:194 & 217 and 9:36 talk about the fighting during the Hajj season while 2:190-193 and 9:5 talk about the fighting outside of Hajj or sacred months.
God’s religion, as preached by all His prophets and messengers including prophet Muhammad forbids all aggression, oppression, eviction, killing or any other violence or evil behavior. The goal of the true believers is to achieve, maintain and advocate righteousness defined by God being truthful, obedient to God, reverent to the rites as prescribed by God upholding the Quran being a source of knowledge, a guidance and a mercy. There is a clear indication even from a subset of the Quranic verses through mathematical confirmation that we can stand up for our rights and fight in self-defense, but never aggress or oppress or take innocent lives.
We live in a different world now as we were in about 1500 years ago when the Quran was revealed but God’s words are unchanged, even we have found irrefutable evidences in the Quran that it is from God. However, there are some groups who have entirely invented their own religion but they claim they belong to Islam (submission in English) and they are Muslims (submitters in English). They do not only take innocent lives but also advocate their members to kill themselves in the cause of God to enter Paradise for eternal happiness. The proof is that they go against God’s words – the Quran. Those who disobey the Quran and choose another source besides it, then their actions are not “Islamic”. They belong to what they have invented as their religion but for sure, not God’s religion. Thus, taking innocent lives of others is murder and selves killing expecting to go to Paradise is suicide which are horrendous crime according to the Quran.
Since these groups insist on calling themselves “Islamic”, they belong to one group called “Radical Islam” or “Islamic extremists.” Many observers concur that this label is completely wrong, because killing and hurting innocent people is the total opposite of the true religion of Islam as detailed in the Quran. Hence, what is today labeled “Radical Islam” is in fact, “Anti-Islam” as “Islam” is not just an Arabic word but it includes peacefully accepting everyone and everything in the world. These criminals are breaking, disobeying, and doing the opposite of every major moral requirement of the Quran, and therefore, not Islamic whatsoever! Since aggression, oppression and killing innocent people in the name of religion is unquestionably against the teachings of Islam, they can accurately be labeled “Anti-Islamic” instead of “Radical Islam” to isolate them from the true believers of Islam all over the world.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.