Here are the verses in sequential order from different suras to have a look that they are logically linked to the Hajj ritual:
[2:125] And when we made the House a place of meeting for the people and security, “You shall use the station of Abraham as a prayer house, and we made a covenant with Abraham and Ismael that you shall purify My house for those who go around, those who devote, those who bow and those who prostrate.”
[2:127] And when Abraham and Ismael raised the foundations of the House, “Our Lord, accept this from us. You are the Hearer, the Omniscient.”
[2:128] “Our Lord, make us submitters to You, and from our descendants let there be a community of submitters to You. And show us our rites and redeem us. You are the Redeemer, Most Merciful.
[2:129] “Our Lord, and raise up in them a messenger to recite to them Your revelations, and teach them the scripture and the wisdom, and purify them. You are the Almighty, Most Wise.”
Note: The House was made a meeting place of the people in order to perform Hajj rituals and the daily practices of worship. When Abraham and Ismael raised its foundations asked God to accept their effort. They also prayed to God to make them submitters to Him and show them the rites, and to raise up a messenger from their descendants to teach them the scripture and the wisdom.
[2:158] The Safa and the Marwah are among the symbols of God. So, whoever performs Hajj to the House or performs Umrah, then there is no blame on him that he traverses between them. And whoever does goodness, then God is Appreciative, Omniscient.
Note: Traversing the distance between the Safa and the Marwah is one of the rituals of Hajj and Umrah.
[2:189] They ask you about the new moons. Say, “They are measures of timing for the people as well as for the Hajj.” And it is not righteousness that you come to the houses from their backs, but it is righteous for the one who fears God and comes to the houses from their doors, and you shall fear God so that you may be successful.
Note: The timing of Hajj is determined by the lunar calendar and the birth of the new moon signals the beginning of Hajj. Thus, when God has decreed any rite for us, He has also given us the way to fulfill it so that we do not have to beat around the bush.
[2:196] And you shall complete the Hajj and the Umrah for God. But if you are prevented, then you shall make an animal sacrifice what is easy to obtain, and do not shave your heads until the animal sacrifice reaches its destination. But whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of his head, then you may expiate either by fasting or giving a charity or a sacrifice. And when you are secure, then whoever continues the Umrah to the Hajj, then he shall make an animal sacrifice what is easy to obtain. But whoever has no animal sacrifice, then you shall fast for three days during the Hajj and seven when you return. This is ten in all; that is for him whose family does not live nearby the Sacred Masjid. And you shall fear God, and know that God is severe in enforcing the retribution.
Note: Under unusual situation, when the pilgrims are not able to reach the Sacred Masjid, they shall make an animal sacrifice including head shaven and shortening, which can be expiated by fasting, giving to a charity or any sacrifice if someone has illness or head injury. Under secure condition, the pilgrims complete Hajj and Umrah, and make an animal sacrifice, which can also be substituted with ten days of fasting – 3 days while in Hajj and 7 days upon return to home.
[2:197] The Hajj can be performed in the specified months. So whoever decides to perform the Hajj therein, then there shall be no sexual relations, no wickedness and no vain arguments throughout the Hajj. And whatever good you do, God is aware of it; and bring provision, indeed, the best provision is righteousness. And you shall fear Me O people of understanding.
Note: Hajj can be performed in any of the specified months while sexual intercourse, misconduct and arguments are prohibited.
[2:198] There is no sin upon you to seek provision from your Lord. So when you depart from Arafaat, then you remember God at the sacred place. And you shall remember Him as He has guided you, even before you were among those who went astray.
[2:199] Then you shall depart from wherever the people depart, and ask forgiveness of God. God is surely Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Note: When the pilgrims commemorate God at Arafaat, they may also seek from Him provision to support them to lead a righteous life. Then they left for sacred place to remember God there (Muzdalifa) and depart it asking forgiveness of God.
[2:200] And when you completed your rites, then remember God as you remember your fathers or even more. But among the people there are some who say: “Our Lord, give us in this world!”, and they have no share in the Hereafter.
[2:201] And some of them say: “Our Lord, give us righteousness in this world, and righteousness in the Hereafter, and spare us from the retribution of the Fire.”
Note: Upon the completion of Hajj the pilgrims should continue to remember God and ask Him to give them righteousness in this world as well as in the Hereafter instead of just asking Him to give them in this world as our priority is the Hereafter.
[2:203] And you shall remember God in a number of days. But whoever hurries in two days, then there is no sin upon him; and whoever delays, then there is no sin upon him who is righteous. And you shall fear God, and know that before Him you will be gathered.
Note: When the pilgrims visit Mina, they can stay there any number of days for remembering God maintaining righteousness while staying of two days fulfills the obligation. It is a place where the two rites: symbolic stoning in condemnation of Satan and animal sacrifice for God are fulfilled on behalf of the pilgrims.
[3:96] The first House established for the people is the one in Becca, a blessed and guidance for all the people.
[3:97] In it are clear signs, the station of Abraham, and whoever enters it is safe. And the people are to perform Hajj to the House for God, whoever is able to make a journey to it. But whoever has disbelieved, then God does not need any of the people.
Note: The Sacred House is located in Becca (Mecca) wherein the people are to perform Hajj for God, who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey to it. The mention of the first House not only indicates its importance but also confirms that Ibrahim is the first one among God’s chosen, who was given the Hajj ritual including other rituals.
[5:1] O you who believe, you shall fulfill your covenants. Made lawful for you are the livestock, except that which is specifically mentioned to you, not being permitted to hunting while you are in the state of Ihram. Indeed, God decrees whatever He wills.
[5:2] O you who believe, do not violate the rites of God, nor the sacred month, nor the animal sacrifice, nor what is garlanded with, nor those coming to the Sacred House for seeking bounty from their Lord and blessing. And when you come out of Ihram, then you may hunt. And let not you incite the hatred for a people when you are prevented from going to the Sacred Masjid that you transgress. And help one another in righteousness and piety, but do not help one another in committing sin and aggression. And you shall fear God, indeed, God is severe in enforcing the retribution.
Note: God has specified what is lawful and what is unlawful around the Hajj. He has commanded us not to violate the God given rites concerning the sacred month, hunting game animal, animal sacrifice or what is garlanded, those coming to the Sacred House and inciting hatred for a people when prevented from going to the Sacred Masjid, helping one another.
[5:94] O you who believe, God will test you with some of the hunting that can be reachable to your hands and your spears, so that God may make evident who honors Him in the unseen. So whoever has transgressed after that, then there is a painful retribution for him.
[5:95] O you who believe, do not kill any game while you are in a state of Ihram. And whoever among you has killed it deliberately, then the recompense is to expiate with the same from the livestock that is equivalent to the game he killed being judged by two equitable men among you, as an offering reaching the Ka’bah or an expiation feeding the needy persons or its equivalent in fasting so that he may perceive the consequence of his deed. God has pardoned what has past but whoever returns, then God will avenge from him. And God is Almighty, Avenger.
[5:96] Made lawful for you is the game of the sea and its food as provision for you as well as for the travellers but made unlawful for you is the game of the land as long as you are in a state of Ihram. And you shall fear God to whom you will be gathered.
Note: Hunting is prohibited during Hajj but if anyone kills the game on purpose, he must compensate it judging by the two equitable men, which need to reach the focal point. The equitable compensation may be from a livestock, or an expiation feeding the needy persons or its equivalent in fasting. He has made the game of the sea lawful while the game of the land has been made unlawful throughout the Hajj. It is also noteworthy that the game is a wild animal which is lawful for us to eat.
[9:2] Therefore, roam the land for four months and know that you cannot escape God, and that God will humiliate the disbelievers.
Note: God has told us to travel freely in four months, which indicates that these four months are consecutive: (1) Zul Al-Hijja (12th), (2) Muharram (1st), (3) Safar (2nd) and (4) Rabi’I (3rd), and is an opportunity for us to perform Hajj being safe.
[9:3] And a declaration from God and His messenger to the people on the day of the great Hajj that God is not responsible for the idol worshipers and so is His messenger. If you repent, then it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape God. And inform those who disbelieve in a painful retribution.
Note: The Hajj is a great opportunity for the pilgrims to purify themselves through repentance to God and asking His forgiveness keeping in mind that idol worship nullifies our all works and we cannot escape God, and the disbelievers will have a painful retribution.
[9:19] Do you consider the giving of water to the pilgrims and the taking care of the Sacred Masjid are as same as the one who believes in God and the Last Day and strives in the cause of God? They are not equal to God, And God does not guide the wicked people.
Note: God has cited an important example for our lesson referring to both the pilgrims and the Sacred Masjid (Shrine) that what we seem righteous works is not the basis of righteous works to God while the people are to believe and do certain things as well as to strive in the cause of God according to His guidance to be righteous to Him.
[9:36] The count of the months with God is twelve months in ordinance of God from the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the perfect religion, so do not wrong yourselves therein. And fight the idol worshipers all together as they fight you all together, and know that God is with the righteous.
[9:37] Indeed, postponing the sacred months is an increase in disbelief as those who disbelieve are led astray by it. They alternate it every other year adjusting the number of months what God has made sacred. Thus, they violate what God has decreed as sacred months. Their evil works have been adorned for them, and God does not guide the disbelieving people.
Note: God has made four months sacred out of twelve months of the lunar calendar in which Hajj is decreed while fighting is sacrilege. But any adjustment of sacred months with other months leads us to astray because of augmentation of disbelief. Thus, we are to only follow what God has decreed for us is a great teaching for us that we must reflect to stay in the right path.
[22:26] And when we assigned to Abraham the location of the House that do not associate anything with Me and you shall purify My House for those who go around, those who devote, those who bow and those who prostrate.
[22:27] And proclaim the Hajj to the people; they will come to you on foot and on every transport; they will come from every farthest location.
[22:28] That they may witness the benefits for themselves and remember God’s name at specified days for what He has provided them with livestock of the animal. So eat from it and feed the needy and the poor.
[22:29] Then let them complete their obligations and fulfill their vows, and go around the ancient House.
[22:33] In it there are benefits for you for a certain period of time, then their place of sacrifice is to the ancient House.
[22:36] And the livestock, we have made it for you as one of the rites decreed by God wherein there is righteousness for you. So mention God’s name upon it while standing in the line and down at its sides. Then eat from it and feed the poor and the needy. It is thus that we have made it for your service so that you may be appreciative.
Note: God assigned to Abraham the location of the Ka’bah to worship Him without associating any partners with Him and ordered him to proclaim the Hajj to the people. Thus, the Hajj has been decreed for us to His House (Shrine) including an offering of animal sacrifice with livestock as a rite for the pilgrims indicating details of the animal sacrifice.
[37:102] When he grew enough to work with him, he said, “O my son, I see in a dream that I am sacrificing you. What do you think?” He said, “O my father, do what you are commanded to do. You will find me, God willing, patient.”
[37:103] So when they both submitted, and he put his forehead down.
[37:104] And we called him: “O Abraham.
[37:105] You have fulfilled the dream.” It is thus that we reward the righteous.
[37:106] Indeed, it was a difficult test.
[37:107] And we ransomed him with a great sacrifice.
[37:108] And we left him in the later generations.
Note: Both Abraham and his son were righteous. The attempt of Abraham to sacrifice his son for the sake of God on the basis of his dream is substituted with an animal sacrifice, and this event is preserved through two rituals: (1) animal sacrifice with livestock and (2) symbolic stoning in condemnation of Satan because of the dream being a Satanic trick on behalf of the pilgrims.
[48:27] God has fulfilled His messenger’s vision with truth: “You will enter the Sacred Masjid, God willing, secure, having with your heads shaven and shortened, without having any fear.” Thus, He knew what you did not know, and He granted, besides that a near victory.
Note: The great victory came to the early Muslims when prophet together with the believers was able to enter the Sacred Masjid secure, fulfilling the Hajj rituals with no fear. History indicates that in the meantime, the Ka’ba was under the control of the idol worshippers of Mecca, who used it as a shrine for the tribal gods and idols of Arabia, and prevented prophet and the believers from entering it for performing Hajj therein. The Quraysh held an annual pilgrimage to the Ka’ba and a fair that attracted pilgrims from all over Arabia.
There is a set of 39 verses across 7 suras in the Quran in connection with Hajj and Umrah. If the digits of sura numbers and verse numbers are added, the total is 3895 which is a multiple of 19 => 3895 = 19x205. This mathematical interpretation confirms that the able Muslims are required to fulfill this obligation during their lifetime following a prescribed manner, and any disputes regarding the Hajj can be resolved reviewing these verses carefully. The table below depicts the detail of the mathematical confirmation:
In addition, the following verses are also reviewed and found that they are not directly connected to the Hajj ritual while there are valuable information in them that we may support to confirm the above set of verses in the Quran that are specifically connected with Hajj:
[2:217] They ask you about the sacred month whether there is fighting in it. Say: “Fighting is sacrilege in it, but repelling from the path of God and disbelieving in Him and the Sacred Masjid, and driving out its people is a greater sin with God while oppression is worse than killing.” And they will fight with you until they turn you away from your religion if they are able. And whoever among you turns away from his religion, then he dies while a disbeliever, then these have nullified their works in the worldly life and the Hereafter, and these are the people of the Fire, they will abide in it forever.
Note: Fighting is sacrilege in the sacred month but oppression is worse than killing. The disbelievers try their best to turn away the believers from their religion and whoever has turned away, then he dies has nullified his all works to go to Hell.
[28:27] He said: “I wish you to marry one of my two daughters that you serve me for eight pilgrimage period of time, but if you complete ten, it will be from your part, and I do not wish to make it difficult for you. God willing, you will find me righteous.”
Note: This is a historical event in regard to the marriage of Moses which also indicates that Hajj did exist long before the revelation of the Quran, and is an ancient rite.
This review confirms that Hajj is specifically addressed in 39 verses across 7 suras of the Quran. However, here are the highlights from each sura that talks about Hajj. The verses in the sura Al Baqarah have addressed the steps of Hajj along with locations to visit, its timing with the birth of new moons, basic requirements, exceptions and expiation in regard to Hajj in the House founded by Abraham and Ismael for the purpose of Hajj as well as daily practices of worship while the verses in sura Ali Imran have confirmed the location of the first House in Mecca and the commandment to perform Hajj therein for God for the believers who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey to it.
The verses in the sura Al Ma’edah have specified what is lawful and what is unlawful for the pilgrims to eat throughout Hajj including violations in the Sacred Masjid, restrictions and compensation in case of intentional violation while the verses in the sura Bara’ah have confirmed that Hajj is a great opportunity for the pilgrims to purify themselves through repentance to God and asking His forgiveness keeping in mind that idol worship nullifies all works and none can escape God being aware that fighting is a sacrilege in the sacred month and any adjustment of sacred months with other months is an augmentation of disbelief.
What has been mentioned in the verses of the very sura Al Hajj is Abraham is the one who had been assigned the location of the Ka’bah to worship God alone and had been ordered to proclaim Hajj to the people to the House including the order of animal sacrifice with livestock to eat and feed the needy and how to carry out it on behalf of the pilgrims while the verses of the sura Al Saffat confirm the reflection of the historical event to the Hajj ritual.
However, the verse of the sura Al Fath confirms the great victory when the prophet together with the believers was able to enter the Sacred Masjid for fulfilling the Hajj rituals with no fear as in the meantime, the Ka’ba was under the control of the idol worshippers of Mecca, who prevented prophet and the believers from entering it for performing Hajj therein.
Here is a short summary from the above analysis that God has commanded the able Muslims to perform Hajj in sura Ali Imran but its basic requirements and procedure are given in sura Al Baqarah while restrictions are found in sura Al Ma’edah and in sura Bara’ah. The commandment of offering animal sacrifice is in sura Al Hajj while history is associated with the rite from sura Al Saffat and sura Al Fath. If we consider the following facts: prohibition of hunting throughout Hajj for conservation of wild life, mixing of sacred months with other months being an excessive disbelief, extended Hajj time period, placement of order of animal sacrifice in sura Al Hajj and livestock preservation, our simple logic dictates that God has decreed animal sacrifice for the pilgrims not for the non-pilgrims.
The fundamentals on which Islam is established are: (1) Quran, (2) Faith (Shahadah), (3) Salat, (4) Zakat, (5) Siyam and (6) Hajj. All of the fundamentals except Hajj are mathematically confirmed through dissecting the Quran as well as applying unique principle to each to clearly understand our obligations and fulfill them as given by God, and their mathematical confirmations are around us for a while. Now, we are blessed with the knowledge to mathematically confirm Hajj, which may be an opportunity for us to strengthen our heart to clearly understand and fulfill this obligation as well avoiding all corruptions and distortions that we see has happened over the period of time.
God has explained our primary responsibilities including all teachings and laws in the Quran as well as has revealed the message of mathematical coding of it (74:30-37) after 1400 years of its revelation through the fulfillment of His prophecy (3:81 & 33:7, 15:9, 27:82 and 74:30). Now we are blessed to have both logical and mathematical confirmations of God’s words on all the fundamentals of our religion to understand it and strengthen our hearts to establish truth defeating falsehood, and if we can only use His words in communication with Him for His listening and responding like the phone conversation that occurs based on the same language without seeing the participant on the other side, we will get what we expect from Him. But what we need to do from our part is sincerity removing any spiritual abnormalities of our hearts: (1) disease, (2) hardening, (3) covering and (4) two hearts as mentioned in the Quran (2:7, 2:10, 2:74, 33:4) to see the truth that the Quran has detailed out what we need for clear understanding and perfectly practicing our God given religious rites as well as to act and lead a righteous life according to His teachings and laws (7:52):
[7:52] And we have brought to them a scripture that we have detailed with knowledge, a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.