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Review on instances of sadaqah and derived forms in Quran

Introduction

God has commanded us in the Quran to spend in His cause from the provision (wealth) what He has given us. He lets us know that like reciting scripture and observing Salat, the spending in His cause is a commerce of no loss rather than gain and a means of nearness with Him getting into His mercy for saving us on the day when there is no trade or friendship. He has not only defined the criteria of spending but has also prescribed two methods: (1) Zakah and (2) Sadaqah to accomplish the practice of spending to achieve His nearness. Hence, we need to follow what He has prescribed for us to spend from His provision without relying on anyone on earth whoever he may be to avoid idol worship which is a trap of Satan to make us losers nullifying our all works. We have already learned about all aspects of Zakah including its precise commandment confirming from 26 verses across 14 suras while Sadaqah is being reviewed to learn details about its practice to do it in a right way without confusing with the practice of Zakah, avoiding misconceptions and corruptions around it too.

There are 24 instances of sadaqah in the Quran in 7 derived forms found in 21 verses across 9 suras having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:

Form Instances Arabic text Literal meanings No of occurrences Grammatical form
1 tasaddaqa  تَصَدَّقَ To give charity 6 Verb form V
2 sadaqāt صَدَقَٰ Charities 8 Noun
3 sadaqat  صَدَقَة Charity 5 Noun
4  mutaṣaddiqāt مُتَصَدِّقَٰت The women who give charity 1 Active participle form V
5 mutaṣaddiqīn مُتَصَدِّقِين The charitable/ the men who give charity 2 Active participle form V
6 muṣṣaddiqāt  مُصَّدِّقَٰت The women who give charity 1 Active participle form V
7 muṣṣaddiqīn مُصَّدِّقِين The men who give charity 1 Active participle form V

Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com

Instances of tasaddaqa

There are 6 instances of tasaddaqa in the verb form meaning to give charity found in 6 verses across 6 suras are described below:

[2:280] If the debtor is in hardship, then it may be a delay until ease time. But if you give (as) charity (tasaddaquu) would be better for you if you knew.

[4:92] And it is not for a believer that he kills another believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake, then freeing of a believing slave and a compensation to be paid to the family; except that they give (as) charity (yassaddaquu). But if he was from a people hostile to you, and he was a believer, then freeing of a believing slave. And if he was from a people between you and them had a treaty, then a compensation to be paid to his family and freeing of a believing slave. And whoever does not find (a believing slave), then fasting of two consecutive months as a repentance from God, and God is Knower, Wise.

[5:45] And we have decreed for them in it that the life for the life, and the eye for the eye, and the nose for the nose, and the ear for the ear, and the tooth for the tooth, and wound for wound retaliation, and whoever gives charity of it (fa-man tasaddaqa bihi), then it is an expiation for him. And whoever does not judge by what God has revealed, then these are the wicked.

[9:75] And among them who made a pledge to God: “If He gives us from His bounty, surely, we will give charity (la-nassaddaqanna) and surely, we will be the righteous.”

[12:88] So when they came to him (Joseph), they said: “O noble one, the adversity has afflicted us and our family, and we have come with poor goods, so pay a full measure to us, and give charity to us (wa-tasaddaq `alaynaa). Indeed, God does reward the charitable (al-musaddiqeena).”

[63:10] And you shall spend of what we have provided you (wa-anfiquu min maa razaqnaakum) before the death comes to you, then (at the time of death) you say: “My Lord, if You could delay me for a short while, then I would give charity (fa-assaddaqa) and be the righteous one!”
Note: No charity is accepted for the dead on behalf of the relatives on the earth while God never delays the appointed time of any soul as He is aware that the above statement is false (63:11).

Instances of sadaqāt

There are 8 instances of sadaqaat in the plural noun form meaning charities found in 8 verses across 3 suras are described below:

[2:264] O you who believe, do not nullify your charities (sadaqaatikum) with insult and harm; like the one who spends his wealth (ka-alladhee yunfiqu maalahu) to show the people, and he does not believe in God and the Last Day. So his example is like a rock on which there is dust, when there was heavy rain on it, then left it bare. They have no effort on anything of what they earned. And God does not guide the disbelieving people.

[2:271] If you disclose the charities (al-sadaqaati), then it is good, but if you keep it secret and give it to the needy, then that is better for you. And He will remove from you of your evil deeds. And God is Cognizant of what you do.

[2:276] God decreases for the usury while He increases for the charities (al-sadaqaati). And God dislikes every ungrateful sinner.

Note: God reduces our wealth if we practice the usury to increase it while He increases it if we give from it in charities as He prohibits the usury but encourages us to give charity.
[9:58] And among them there are those who criticize you (prophet) regarding (the distribution of) the charities (al-sadaqaati). So if they are given from it, then they are pleased, and if they are not given from it, then they are displeased!

[9:60] The charities (al-sadaqaatu) are only for the needy, and the poor, and those who collect them, and those whose hearts have been united, and in freeing the slaves, and for those in debt, and in the cause of God, and for the traveling alien – an obligation from God, and God is Knower, Wise.

[9:79] Those who criticize the believers who give much in the charities (fee al-sadaqaati) and ridicule those who do not find enough (to give). And God will ridicule them and for them there is a painful punishment.

[9:104] Do they not know that it is God who accepts the repentance from His servants, and He takes the charities (al-sadaqaati), and that God is the Redeemer, the Most Merciful.

[58:13] Do you fear to offer in charities (sadaqaatin) before your consultation? So when you do not do and God has turned to you. Then you shall observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata) and give the Obligatory Charity (al-zakata), and obey God and His messenger. And God is fully aware of what you do.

Instances of sadaqat

There are 5 instances of sadaqat in the singular noun form meaning charity found in 5 verses across 4 suras are described below:

[2:196] And you shall complete the Hajj and the `Umrah for God. But if you are prevented, then you shall make an animal sacrifice what is easy to obtain, and do not shave your heads until the animal sacrifice reaches its destination. But whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of his head, then you may expiate either by fasting or charity (sadaqatin) or a sacrifice. And when you are secure, then whoever continues the `Umrah to the Hajj, then he shall make an animal sacrifice what is easy to obtain. But whoever has no animal sacrifice, then you shall fast for three days during the Hajj and seven when you return. This is ten in all; that is for him whose family does not live nearby the Sacred Masjid. And you shall fear God, and know that God is severe in enforcing the retribution.

[2:263] Kind word and forgiveness are far better than charity (sadaqatin) which is followed by harm. And God is Rich, Clement.

[4:114] There is no good in much of their private talk except whoever urges for charity (bisadaqatin) or kindness or reconciliation between the people. And whoever does that seeking God’s pleasure, then soon we will give him a great reward.

[9:103] Take (prophet) charity (sadaqatan) from their wealth to purify them and to strengthen them by it, and counsel them. Indeed, your (prophet) counseling will be a reassurance for them. And God is Hearer, Knower.

[58:12] O you who believe, when you privately consult (with) the messenger, you should offer charity (sadaqatan) before your private consultation. That is better for you, and purer. But if you cannot find (anything to offer), then God is Forgiving, Merciful.

Instances of the active participles

There are 5 instances of tasaddaqa in the active participle form meaning the men and the women who give charity found in 3 verses across 3 suras are described below:

[12:88] So when they came to him, they said: “O noble one, the adversity has afflicted us and our family, and we have come with poor goods, so pay a full measure to us, and give charity to us (wa-tasaddaq `alaynaa). Indeed, God does reward the charitable (al-mutasaddiqeena).”

[33:35] Surely, the submitting men, and the submitting women, the believing men, and the believing women, the obedient men, and the obedient women, the truthful men, and the truthful women, and the patient men, and the patient women, and the humble men, and the humble women, and the charitable men (wal-mutasaddiqeena), and the charitable women (wal-mutasaddiqaati), and the fasting men, and the fasting women, and the men who guard their chastity, and the chaste women, and the men who commemorate God frequently, and the commemorating women; God has prepared for them forgiveness and a great recompense.

[57:18] Surely, the charitable men (al-musaddiqeena) and the charitable women (wal-musaddiqaati), have loaned God a loan of goodness will be multiplied for them, and for them there is honorable reward.

Summary

  • When the debtor is in hardship to repay the loan, the lender may give him it as charity.
  • If a believer kills another believer by mistake, then he has to pay a compensation to the victim family unless they give it as charity.
  • God has decreed for us equivalent retaliation in this world but if anyone gives it as charity, would be expiation.
  • Many of us promise to God that if He gives them from His bounty, then they will surely give charity to be the righteous.
  • Joseph’s family came to him with insufficient goods to trade but they asked for full measure as charity.
  • We should give charity before our death so that we do not have to ask Him to delay our death to be righteous by giving charity when it comes to us.
  • The believers should not nullify their charities with insult and harm just to show off the people.
  • If we disclose our charities is still good but if we can keep it secret paying to the right recipients would be better for us.
  • God decreases for the practice of usury while He increases for giving to the charities.
  • They criticized the prophet in the distribution of charities, who were given were pleased but who were not were displeased.
  • Charities can be given to the needy, and the poor, and those who collect them, and those whose hearts have been united, and in freeing the slaves, and for those in debt, and in the cause of God, and for the traveling alien.
  • God will ridicule and punish those who criticize the believers for giving a big or a small amount to charity.
  • It is not known to many that God is the One who accepts the repentance and takes charities.
  • The believers should offer charity before their private consultation with prophet, which was better and purer for them.
  • When the believers were not able to offer in charities before the consultation with the prophet, God is still merciful on them if they observe Salah and pay Zakah.
  • Whoever is ill or has an ailment of his head may expiate the head shaving, a Hajj ritual either by fasting or charity or a sacrifice.
  • Kind word and forgiveness are better than the charities followed by harm.
  • There is no good in the private talk except whoever urges for charity or kindness or reconciliation between the people.
  • Prophet was told to take charities from the believers to purify and strengthen them.
  • God has prepared for forgiveness and great recompense for the charitable men and women.
  • There is a promise from God of an honorable reward for the charitable men and women as they have loaned Him a loan of goodness, which will be multiplied manifold.

Conclusion

The review of 24 instances of sadaqah found in 21 verses of the Quran provides us enough information to practice charity avoiding corrupt beliefs and practices around it. God has defined the criteria to practice it in a right way being our opportunity to become more righteous. Thus, the charitable men and the charitable women who loan Him a loan of goodness, which multiplies manifold are promised an honorable reward from Him. Since charities not only purify and strengthen us but also raise our status with God, we must send forth to find with Him when we will meet Him.

Charities are also lifetime practice and we can achieve righteousness by giving it before our death so that we can avoid the consequences of asking our Lord at the moment of death to delay it for becoming righteous by giving charity (63:10). While we see a tradition (Hadith), which contradicts the Quran: “When a person dies, all their deeds end, except three: Sadaqah Jariyah, beneficial knowledge and a child who prays for them. Sadaqah Jariyah is a special charitable act which continues to benefit us even when we have passed from this world.” This tradition that contradicts the Quran (63:10, 3:91) without any doubt is a big lie to deceive and divert us being a satanic trick.

From the review of 73 instances of anfaqa in 57 verses of the Quran, we have details on spending in the cause of God, which is a commerce of no loss and a means of saving us on the day when there is no trade or friendship. The indication in the order of spending for Zakah as obligatory – spending to prevent us from throwing into destruction by ourselves, and for Sadaqah as voluntary – spending to multiply our wealth manifold with God are cited as examples to better understand these two acts.

From the review of 40 verses in the Quran around the instances of Zakat, Haqq and Anfaqa, we have details on Zakat, including an explicit proof of its commandment from 26 verses. God has decreed Zakah for us and has given us the way to practice it paying 2.5% or 1/40 confirmed from (74:24), passed down to us, from the time of Abraham to our time (4:125, 6:161, 16:123, 22:78).

Review confirms that God encourages us to practice Sadaqah by giving charity as much as we can following criteria defined by Him to raise our status with Him, reflecting on essence of 57 verses of anfaqa about spending and of 40 verses of Zakah, Haqq & anfaqa about Zakah not to confuse with Zakah, a means of growth, purification and His blessing being 4th of the concept of 6-pillar of Islam.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.
Tafazzal (1/25/2019).