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Review on instances of anfaqa and derived forms in Quran

Introduction

The instances of anfaqa occur 73 times in the Quran in 5 derived forms found in 57 verses across 25 suras having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:

Form Instances Arabic text Literal meanings No of occurrences Grammatical form
1 anfaqa (أَنفَقَ) To spend 68 Verb form IV
2 nafaqāt (نَفَقَٰت) Spending 1 Noun
3 nafaqat (نَفَقَة) Spending 2 Noun
4 infāq (إِنفَاق) Spending 1 Verbal noun form IV
5 munfiqīn (مُنفِقِين) Those who spend 1 Active participle form IV

Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com

Instances of anfaqa

There are 68 instances of anfaqa (أَنفَقَ) in the verb form found in 55 verses across 24 suras are described below:

[2:3] Those who believe in the unseen and observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata) and out of what we (royal first person plural) have provided them they spend (yunfiquuna).

[2:195] And you shall spend (wa-anfiquu) in the cause of God, and do not throw yourselves with your hands into destruction. And do good; indeed, God loves those who do the good works (al-muh’sineen).

[2:215] They ask you (prophet) what they should spend (maadhaa yunfiquun). Say, “Whatever good you spend (maa anfaqtum min khayrin) should be for the parents, the relatives, the orphans, the needy, and the traveling alien.” And whatever good you do, then God is fully aware of it.
Note: In the expression “They ask you (prophet) what they should spend” is an indication of its relation to obligatory spending specifying the recipients.

[2:219] They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say: “In them there is great harm; even there is some benefit for the people but their harm is greater than their benefit.” And they ask you what they should spend (maadhaa yunfiquun). Say: “The excess (al-`afwa).” Thus, God makes the revelations clear to you so that you may explore.
Note: The key word, “ al-`afwa” meaning ‘the excess’ in the verse is an indication of its relation to voluntary spending.

[2:261] The example of those who spend their wealth (alladheena yunfiquuna amwaalahum) in the cause of God is like a seed that produces seven ears, in each ear of hundred seeds. And God gives manifold to whomever He wills, and God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.

[2:262] Those who spend their wealth (alladheena yunfiquuna amwaalahum) in the cause of God, then they do not follow what they have spent with neither insult nor harm; they will have their reward with their Lord, there will be no fear for them nor will they grieve.

[2:264] O you who believe, do not nullify your charities (sadaqaatikum) with insult and harm; like the one who spends his wealth (ka-alladhee yunfiqu maalahu) to show the people, and he does not believe in God and the Last Day. So his example is like a rock on which there is dust, when there was heavy rain on it, then left it bare. They have no effort on anything of what they earned. And God does not guide the disbelieving people.

[2:265] And the example of those who spend their wealth (money) (alladheena yunfiquuna amwaalahum) seeking God’s pleasure and certainty of their souls, is like the example of a garden on a height that a heavy rain has fallen on it, so it has yielded double its harvest. Then if it does not fall heavy rain, then light rain is enough. And God is Seer of what you do.

[2:267] O you who believe, spend from good things (anfiquu min tayyibaati) that you have earned, and from what we have brought forth from the earth. And do not choose the bad of it you spend (tunfiquuna), while you would not take it except that you close eyes in it. And know that God is Rich, Praiseworthy.

[2:270] And whatever you spend (anfaqtum) out of money (min nafaqatin) or (whatever) you pledge as a promise, then God knows it. And for the wicked have no helpers.

[2:272] You (prophet) are not responsible for their guidance, but it is God who guides whomever He wills. And whatever good you spend (tunfiquu), then it is for yourselves, and you do not spend (wa-maa tunfiquuna) except seeking God’s pleasure. And whatever good you spend (tunfiquu) will be repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.

[2:273] For the needy who face hardship in the cause of God, and they do not move about in the land. The unaware may think they are rich from the temperateness. You may know them by their behaviors, who do not ask the people often. And whatever good you spend (tunfiquu), then indeed, God is aware of it.
Note: Whatever we spend should be spent for the right recipients even though who do not ask for it.

[2:274] Those who spend their wealth (alladheena yunfiquuna amwaalahum) by night and day, secretly and openly, they will have their reward with their Lord, and there will have no fear for them nor will they grieve.

[3:92] You cannot attain righteousness unless you spend (tunfiquu) of what you love; and whatever you spend (wa-maa tunfiquu) of a possession, then indeed, God is aware of it.
Note: Righteousness can be attained at God by spending from provision what we love and the verse 3:91 states: an earth full of gold will not be accepted as ransom from those who died as disbelievers.

[3:117] The example of what they spend (maa yunfiquuna) in this worldly life is like a wind wherein there is a frost, which struck the harvest of the people who wronged themselves, then destroyed it. And God has not wronged them, but they have wronged themselves.

[3:134] Those who spend (yunfiquun) during ease as well as hardship, and those who restrain anger, and those who pardon people – and God loves those who do the good works (al-muh’sineen).
Note: The Arabic word, al-muh’sineen at the end of the verse indicates that we should spend at both our good and bad time from our provision given by God.

4:34] Men are caregivers of women because God has given them certain qualities and because they spend from their wealth (money) (wa-bimaa anfaquu min amwaalihim). So, the righteous women voluntarily accept that what God has enjoined to guard. If you fear rebellion from them (women), then you should advise them, and you may desert them in the bed and even you may completely ignore them (wa-id’ribuuhunna). But if they obey you, then do not seek a way against them. Indeed, God is Most High, Most Great.
Note: Men are made responsible to support the family from their wealth but are not made them guardians over women.

[4:38] And those who spend their wealth (wa-alladheena yunfiquuna amwaalahum) to show-off the people do not believe in God and the Last Day, and whoever has the devil as his companion, is an evil companion.

[4:39] What is wrong with them if they believed in God and the Last Day, and spent of what God has provided them (wa-anfaquu mimmaa razaqumu allahu)? And God is aware of them.

[5:64] And the Jews said: “The hand of God is tied-down!” Their hands will be tied-down, and they will be cursed for what they have said. No, His hands are wide open; He spends how He wills (yunfiqu kayfa yashaau). And what has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase rebellion and disbelief in many of them; and we have cast between them enmity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. Every time they set on fire for the war, God extinguished it, and they seek to spread corruption in the land. And God does not love the corrupters.

[8:3] Those who observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata) and out of what we (royal first person plural) have provided them they spend (yunfiquuna).

[8:36] Indeed, those who disbelieve spend their wealth (yunfiquuna amwaalahum) to hinder from the path of God. So, they will spend it (fa-sa-yunfiquunahaa), then it will be regret for them, then they will be defeated. Those who disbelieved will be gathered to Hell.

[8:60] And prepare for them whatever you are able of force and of the tethered horses to terrify with it God’s enemy and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know but God knows them. And whatever you spend from anything (wa-maa tunfiquu min shayin) in the way of God it will be fully repaid to you and you will not be wronged.

[8:63] And He has placed regard (affection) between their (the believers) hearts. If you had spent (law anfaqta) all whatever in the earth, you would not have placed regard between their hearts, but God has placed regard between them. Indeed, He is Almighty, Most Wise.

[9:34] O you who believe, many of the rabbis (Jewish) and the monks (Christians) consume the people’s wealth (money) with the falsehood and hinder from the path of God. And those who hoard gold and silver, and do not spend them in the path of God (wa-laa-yunfiquunahaa fee sabeelillahi), then give them news of a painful punishment.
[9:35] On the day when it will be heated in the fire of Hell, and will be branded with it their foreheads and their sides and their backs: “This is what you hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard!”
Note: In many cases religious leaders take religion as their profession and do not share the truth with their followers being afraid of losing their job or reputation. On the other hand, there are some among us who do trade and businesses with gold and silver but what accrues from them as investment is not spent in the cause of God while the verse, 9:35 is misinterpreted to be the commandment of paying Zakat on the ornaments made of gold and silver used by the women, even the commandment is in the masculine form.

[9:53] Say: “Spend willingly or unwillingly (anfiquu taw`an aw karhan), never will be accepted from you. Indeed, you are a disobedient people.”

[9:54] And what prevented that their spending is not being accepted from them except that they disbelieve in God and in His messenger, and they do not come to the Contact Prayer (al-salata) except while they are lazy, and they do not spend (wa-laa-yunfiquuna) except while they are unwilling.

[9:91]There is no blame on the weak, and on the sick, and on those who do not find anything to spend (laa-yajiduuna maa yunfiquuna), if they are sincere to God and His messenger. There is no blame on the good doers. And God is Forgiving, Merciful.

[9:92] Nor upon those who come to ride out with you, while you said: “I do not have any mounts for you;” they turned away while their eyes were flooded with tears out of sadness that they could not find anything to spend (allaa yajiduu maa yunfiquuna).

[9:98] And of the Arabs who takes what he spends (maa yunfiqu) as a loss, and awaits misfortune for you. They will have the misfortune of evil, and God is Hearer, Knower.

[9:99] And of the Arabs who believes in God and the Last Day, and takes what he spends as a means of nearness with God, and of supporting the messenger. Behold! Indeed, it is a means of nearness for them. God will admit them into His mercy; Indeed, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Note: Spending in the cause of God is a means of nearness with God for getting into His mercy.

[9:121] And they cannot spend (wa-laa-yunfiquuna) any spending nafaqatan) neither small nor large nor can cross a valley unless being recorded for them that God may reward them the best of what they used to do.

[13:22] And those who are patient seeking their Lord’s pleasure, and observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata) and spend of what we have provided them (wa-anfaquu mimmaa razaqnaahum) secretly and openly, and repel the evil with the good; those will have the best reward of the final abode.

[14:31] Say to My servants who believe to observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata) and to spend of what we have provided them (wa-yunfiquu mimmaa razaqnaahum) secretly and publicly, before a day that comes wherein there is neither trade nor friendship.
Note: Spending from our provision is a means of saving us on the day wherein there is no trade or friendship.

[16:75] God sets an example of a slave who is owned, has no power over anything, and one whom we provided him with a good provision from us, so he spends from it (fa-huwa yunfiquu minhu) secretly and publicly. Are they equal? Praise be to God, but most of them do not know.

[18:42] And its fruits were damaged, so he began twisting his hands on what he had spent on it (`alaa maa anfaqa feehaa) while it had fallen on its trellises, and he said, “I wish I did not associate anyone with my Lord.”

[22:35] Those who – when God is mentioned, their hearts tremble, and those who are patient (wal-saabireena) on what has afflicted them, and those who observe (wal-muqeemee) the Contact Prayer (al-salata) and of what we have provided them they spend (wa-mimmaa razaqnaahum yunfiquuna).

[25:67] And those who when they spend (idhaa anfaquu) are neither extravagant nor stingy, but are moderate being between that.

[28:54] These will be given their reward twice, because they are patient and they repel the evil works with the good works, and of what we have provided them they spend (wa-mimmaa razaqnaahum yunfiquuna).

[32:16] Their sides forsake from the beds; they call on their Lord in fear and hope, and of what we have provided them they spend (wa-mimmaa razaqnaahum yunfiquuna).

[34:39] Say: “Indeed, My Lord increases the provision for whoever He wills of His servants and He restricts for him. And whatever you spend (wa-maa anfaqtum) of anything, then He will compensate it, and He is the Best Provider.”

[35:29] Surely, those who recite God’s scripture (yatluuna kitaaba allahi), and observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata), and spend of what we have provided them (wa-anfaquu mimmaa razaqnaahum) secretly and openly, hope for a commerce that have no loss.

[36:47] When it is said to them, “Spend what God has provided you (anfiquu mimmaa razaqumu allahi.” Those who disbelieve has said to those who believe, “Shall we feed those whom God could feed, if He so willed? You are none but obviously the misguided ones.”

[42:38] And those who respond to their Lord, and observe the Contact Prayer (al-salata), and their affairs are conducted by consultation among themselves, and of what we have provided them they spend (wa-mimmaa razaqnaahum yunfiquuna).

[47:38] Here you are – who are invited to spend in the cause of God (haaulaa-i tud`awna litunfiquu fee sabeelillahi) while among you there are those who turn stingy, and whoever turns stingy, then he only turns stingy on himself. And God is the Richest, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace with a people other than you, then they will not be like you.

[57:7] Believe in God and His messenger, and spend of what (wa-anfiquu mimmaa) He has made you successors to wherein. Those among you who believe and spend (wa-anfaquu), for them there is a great reward.

[57:10] Why do you not spend in the cause of God (allaa tunfiquu fee sabeelillahi), when God possesses all of the heavens and the earth? Not equal are those among you who spent (minkum man anfaqa) before the victory and fought. These are greater in rank than those who spent after the victory and fought. But to all God has promised the best, and God is aware of what you do.

[60:10] O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, you shall test them. God is aware of their faith. If you know that they are believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers. They (women) are neither lawful for them (disbelievers), nor they (disbelievers) are lawful for them (women), and give them (disbelievers) what they have spent (maa anfaquu). And there is no blame on you if you marry them (women) when you have given them their (bridal) payment (ujuurahunna). And do not hold marriage with the disbelieving wives. And you may ask for what you have spent (maa anfaqtum) and let them ask for what they have spent (maa anfaquu). That is God’s judgment. He judges between you, and God is Omniscient, Most Wise.
[60:11] If any of your wives has gone to the disbelievers, then it is your turn, then give to those whose wives have gone is like of what they had spent (maa anfaquu). And fear God, in whom you are believers.

[63:7] They are the ones who say: “Do not spend on him who (laa tunfiquu `alaa man) is with messenger of God unless they break up.” And God possesses the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites do not comprehend.

[63:10] And you shall spend of what we have provided you (wa-anfiquu min maa razaqnaakum) before the death comes to you, then (at the time of death) you say: “My Lord, if You could delay me for a short while, then I would give charity (fa-assaddaqa) and be the righteous one!”

[64:16] So you shall fear God as it should be, and listen, and obey, and spend (wa-anfiquu) for your own good. And whoever is protected from one’s stinginess, these are the successful ones.

[65:6] You shall allow them (women) to live in the house you live supporting from your means, and do not harm them to cause distress on them. And if they are pregnant, then you shall spend on them (fa-anfiquu `alayhinna) until they give birth. Afterwards, if they nurse the infant, you shall give them their payment and shall consult among yourselves to maintain the amicable relation, and if you disagree, then you may have another (woman) to nurse the infant.

[65:7] Let him spend (li-yunfiq) who has plenty in accordance with his means and who is limited on his provision so let him spend (fal-yunfiq) of what God has given him. God does not burden any soul beyond that what He has given it. God will provide ease after hardship.

Instance of nafaqaat

[9:54] And what prevented that their spending (nafaqaatuhum) is not being accepted from them except that they disbelieve in God and in His messenger, and they do not come to the Contact Prayer (al-salata) except while they are lazy, and they do not spend (wa-laa-yufiquuna) except while they are unwilling.

Instances of nafaqat

[2:270] And whatever you spend (anfaqtum) out of money (min nafaqtin) or (whatever) you pledge as a promise, then God knows it. And for the wicked have no helpers.

[9:121] And they cannot spend (wa-laa-yunfiquuna) any spending nafaqatan) neither small nor large nor can cross a valley unless being recorded for them that God may reward them the best of what they used to do.

Instance of infaaq

[17:100] Say: “If you could possess the treasures of my Lord’s mercy, surely, you would withhold for fear of spending (khasyata al-infaqi). And the human being is stingy!”

Instance of munfiqeen

[3:17] The patient, and the truthful, and the obedient, and those who spend (munfiqeena) and those who seek forgiveness in the late night.

Summary

  • We must spend in the cause of God to prevent us from not throwing ourselves into destruction.
  • Those who spend in the cause of God, their wealth multiplies manifold (700 times) with Him.
  • Who spend in the cause of God following with no insult or harm will have their reward with Him.
  • The true believers should spend from good thing not from bad of it being careful of it when done.
  • Those who spend their wealth to show off the people do not believe in God and the Last Day.
  • Whatever good we spend or we make a promise for it is being recorded and God is aware of it.
  • Whatever good we spend seeking God’s pleasure is spent for ourselves as it will be repaid.
  • Whatever good we spend should be spent for the right recipients even who do not ask for it.
  • Those who spend by night or day and secretly or openly will have their reward from their Lord.
  • We cannot achieve righteousness unless we spend from whatever we love of our given provision.
  • Spending for the Hereafter at our good and bad times is better than spending for the worldly life.
  • Men are to spend for the family from their wealth but are not made them guardians over women.
  • Those who spend their wealth to show off the people do not believe in God and Last Day.
  • Jews said, “God’s hand is tied down” but His hands are wide open and He spends how He wills.
  • Those who disbelieve spend to hinder people from the path of God will be regretful and defeated.
  • Many religious leaders consume people’s money illicitly and divert them from the path of God.
  • Those who spend without believing in God and His messenger will not be accepted from them.
  • The believers spend in the cause of God as a means of nearness with Him getting into His mercy.
  • Spending from our provision is a means of saving us on the day there is no trade or friendship.
  • God increases provision for whomever He wills and He restricts it for whomever He wills.
  • We must spend from our provision before our death to avoid the consequences in the Hereafter.
  • We must spend in accordance with provision as God does not burden any soul beyond its means.
  • If we could possess the treasures of our Lord’s mercy, we would withhold for fearing of spending.
  • Reciting God’s scripture, observing Salat and spending from His provision is our commerce with Him, in which there is no loss but a guaranteed gain.

This review not only encourages us to spend in the cause of God but it is also a reminder for us to pay Zakat on a regular basis (2:215, 3:134) being a commerce of no loss but guaranteed gain. Then why should we not spend in His cause from the provision He has provided us as our means of nearness with Him getting into His mercy and of saving us on the day there is no trade or friendship?
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.
Tafazzal (1/18/2019).