[7:52] We have given them a scripture that is fully detailed, with knowledge, guidance, and mercy for the people who believe.
[10:37] This Quran could not possibly be authored by other than God. It confirms all previous messages, and provides a fully detailed scripture. It is infallible, for it comes from the Lord of the universe.
Note: Quran is from God and it has every details to lead a righteous life but for the true believers only.
Mention Muhammad by name
God has mentioned Muhammad 4 times by his name in the Quran informing us that he was a messenger like other messengers chosen before him but has been blessed to be the prophet of the final scripture which is sent down with truth from our Lord. Those who believe it and work righteousness, God will forgive their sins and bless them with contentment and they can easily be distinguished from the disbelievers because of their bowing and prostrating through establishing Salat seeking God’s blessings and approval:
[3:144] Muhammad was no more than a messenger like the messengers before him. Should he die or get killed, would you turn back on your heels? Anyone who turns back on his heels, does not hurt God in the least. God rewards those who are appreciative.
Note: It is an additional command for the believers to make no distinction among messengers especially between Muhammad and any other messengers of God. The believers are required to uphold the message to appreciate God whether the messenger is among us or not.
[33:40] Muhammad was not the father of any man among you. He was a messenger of God and the final prophet. God is fully aware of all things.
Note: Core message – Quran is the final scripture, absolutely no teaching for us to be proud of Muhammad chosen as the last prophet except an evil behavior as there is no distinction among His chosen whether prophet or messenger, i.e., who is chosen to deliver what or time period, i.e., who is chosen when.
[47:2] Those who believe and work righteousness, and believe in what was sent down to Muhammad – which is the truth from their Lord – He remits their sins, and blesses them with contentment.
[48:29] Muhammad – the messenger of God – and those with him are harsh and stern against the disbelievers, but kind and compassionate amongst themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating, as they seek God’s blessings and approval. Their marks are on their faces, because of prostrating. This is the same example as in the Torah. Their example in the Gospel is like plants that grow taller and stronger, and please the farmers. He thus enrages the disbelievers. God promises those among them who believe, and lead a righteous life, forgiveness and a great recompense.
Note 1: Establishing Salat by the believers distinguishes them from the disbelievers.
Note 2: Verses as arranged in the composition matches the order of revelation as well.
Address Muhammad as prophet
In addition to mention Muhammad by name, he has been addressed as prophet in many verses of the Quran to refer him in connection with his lifetime activities such as handling of war, captives, prisoners and spoils of war, cultural stuff including to deal with the contemporary believers and disbelievers of the message that came down to him when he had been direct contact with people. This set of instructions is very important for us to understand so that we can follow them without any misinterpretation when he is no more among us:
[7:157] Those who follow the messenger, the gentile prophet (Muhammad), whom they find written in their Torah and Gospel exhorts them to be righteous, enjoins them from evil, allows for them all good food, and prohibits that which is bad, and unloads the burdens and the shackles imposed upon them. Those who believe in him, respect him, support him, and follow the light that came with him are the successful ones.
[7:158] Say, “O people, I am God’s messenger to all of you. To Him belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. There is no god except He. He controls life and death.” Therefore, you shall believe in God and His messenger, the gentile prophet, who believes in God and His words. Follow him, that you may be guided.
[3:161] Even the prophet cannot take more of the spoils of war than he is entitled to. Anyone who takes more than his rightful share will have to account for it on the Day of Resurrection. That is when each soul is paid for whatever it earned, without the least injustice.
[8:64] O you prophet, sufficient for you is God and the believers who have followed you.
[8:65] O you prophet, you shall exhort the believers to fight. If there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they can defeat two hundred, and a hundred of you can defeat a thousand of those who disbelieved. That is because they are people who do not understand.
[8:67] No prophet shall acquire captives, unless he participates in the fighting. You people are seeking the materials of this world, while God advocates the Hereafter. God is Almighty, Most Wise.
Note: God’s law is equally applicable to prophet either without any discrimination and also found in (3:161).
[8:70] O you prophet, tell the prisoners of war in your hands, “If God knew of anything good in your hearts, He would have given you better than anything you have lost, and would have forgiven you. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful.”
Note: The above verses are to strengthen prophet’s heart and advise him how to handle war, captives and prisoners, and spoils of war.
[9:61] Some of them hurt the prophet by saying, “He is all ears!” Say, “It is better for you that he listens to you. He believes in God, and trusts the believers. He is a mercy for those among you who believe.” Those who hurt God’s messenger have incurred a painful retribution.
[9:73] O you prophet, strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern in dealing with them. Their destiny is Hell; what a miserable abode!
[9:113] Neither the prophet, nor those who believe shall ask forgiveness for the idol worshipers, even if they were their nearest of kin, once they realize that they are destined for Hell.
Note: God’s law only allows us to ask God’s forgiveness for the believers.
[9:117] God has redeemed the prophet, and the immigrants (Muhãjireen) and the supporters who hosted them and gave them refuge (Ansãr), who followed him during the difficult times. That is when the hearts of some of them almost wavered. But He has redeemed them, for He is Compassionate towards them, Most Merciful.
[33:1] O you prophet, you shall reverence God and do not obey the disbelievers and the hypocrites. God is Omniscient, Most Wise.
[33:13] A group of them said, “O people of Yathrib, you cannot attain victory; go back.” Others made up excuses to the prophet: “Our homes are vulnerable,” when they were not vulnerable. They just wanted to flee.
[33:28] O prophet, say to your wives, “If you are seeking this life and its vanities, then let me compensate you and allow you to go amicably.
[33:30] O wives of the prophet, if any of you commits a gross sin, the retribution will be doubled for her. This is easy for God to do.
[33:38] The prophet is not committing an error by doing anything that is made lawful by God. Such is God’s system since the early generations. God’s command is a sacred duty.
[33:45] O prophet, we have sent you as a witness, a bearer of good news, as well as a warner.
[33:50] O prophet, we made lawful for you your wives to whom you have paid their due dowry, or what you already have, as granted to you by God. Also lawful for you in marriage are the daughters of your father’s brothers, the daughters of your father’s sisters, the daughters of your mother’s brothers, the daughters of your mother’s sisters, who have emigrated with you. Also, if a believing woman gave herself to the prophet – by forfeiting the dowry – the prophet may marry her without a dowry, if he so wishes. However, her forfeiting of the dowry applies only to the prophet, and not to the other believers. We have already decreed their rights in regard to their spouses or what they already have. This is to spare you any embarrassment. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
[33:53] O you who believe, do not enter the prophet’s homes unless you are given permission to eat, nor shall you force such an invitation in any manner. If you are invited, you may enter. When you finish eating, you shall leave; do not engage him in lengthy conversations. This used to hurt the prophet, and he was too shy to tell you. But God does not shy away from the truth. If you have to ask his wives for something, ask them from behind a barrier. This is purer for your hearts and their hearts. You are not to hurt the messenger of God. You shall not marry his wives after him, for this would be a gross offense in the sight of God.
Note: Here is a hint that God keeps us away from knowing prophet’s private life but his mistakes are brought to our notice for our teaching that he was a human being and can make mistake (80:1-2, 33:7).
[33:56] God and His angels help and support the prophet. O you who believe, you shall help and support him, and regard him as he should be regarded.
Note: Here is the order for the contemporary believers to help and support the prophet at his lifetime
[33:59] O prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and the wives of the believers that they shall lengthen their garments. Thus, they will be recognized (as righteous women) and avoid being insulted. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
[60:12] O you prophet, when the believing women (who abandoned the disbelievers) to seek asylum with you pledge to you that they will not set up any idols besides God, nor steal, nor commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor fabricate any falsehood, nor disobey your righteous orders, you shall accept their pledge, and pray to God to forgive them. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
[65:1] O you prophet, when you people divorce the women, you shall ensure that a divorce interim is fulfilled. You shall measure such an interim precisely. You shall reverence God your Lord. Do not evict them from their homes, nor shall you make life miserable for them, to force them to leave on their own, unless they commit a proven adultery. These are God’s laws. Anyone who transgresses God’s laws commits an injustice against himself. You never know; maybe God wills something good to come out of this.
[66:1] O you prophet, why do you prohibit what God has made lawful for you, just to please your wives? God is Forgiver, Merciful.
[66:3] The prophet had trusted some of his wives with a certain statement, then one of them spread it, and God let him know about it. He then informed his wife of part of the issue, and disregarded part. She asked him, “Who informed you of this?” He said, “I was informed by the Omniscient, Most Cognizant.”
[66:8] O you who believe, you shall repent to God a firm repentance. Your Lord will then remit your sins and admit you into gardens with flowing streams. On that day, God will not disappoint the prophet and those who believed with him. Their light will radiate in front of them and to their right. They will say, “Our Lord, perfect our light for us, and forgive us; You are Omnipotent.”
Note: Those who believe and uphold Quran and follow it to lead a righteous life will go to Heaven.
[66:9] O prophet, struggle against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be stern with them. Their abode is Gehenna, and a miserable destiny.
Muhammad’s duty as messenger
As a messenger, the key role of Muhammad was to faithfully deliver the final message without explaining it but he had to use it for himself as well to establish appropriate belief in his heart and perfect his religious practices to develop his own soul for successful return to God being redeemed as he was not more than a warner or different from other messengers:
[5:99] The messenger has NO function EXCEPT delivery of the message….
[42:48] …You have NO duty EXCEPT delivering the message….
Note: The key role of the messenger is to deliver the message which has been confirmed with the double negative in the Arabic text to emphasize the focus on the message.
[18:27] You shall recite what is revealed to you of your Lord’s scripture. Nothing shall abrogate His words, and you shall not find any other source beside it.
[29:45] You shall recite what is revealed to you of the scripture, and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), for the Contact Prayers prohibit evil and vice. But the remembrance of God(through Salat) is the most important objective. God knows everything you do.
[6:50] Say, “I do not say to you that I possess the treasures of God. Nor do I know the future. Nor do I say to you that I am an angel. I simply follow what is revealed to me.” Say, “Is the blind the same as the seer? Do you not reflect?”
[6:106] Follow what is revealed to you from your Lord, there is no god except He, and disregard the idol worshipers.
[7:3] You shall all follow what is revealed to you from your Lord; do not follow any idols besides Him. Rarely do you take heed.
[46:9] Say, “I am not different from other messengers. I have no idea what will happen to me or to you. I only follow what is revealed to me. I am no more than a profound warner.”
Note: These verses are clear indication that Muhammad followed what is revealed to him and he had no knowledge of any future events.
[3:79] Never would a human being whom God blessed with the scripture and prophethood say to the people, “Idolize me beside God.” Instead, (he would say), “Devote yourselves absolutely to your Lord alone,” according to the scripture you preach and the teachings you learn.
[6:51] And preach with this (Quran) to those who reverence the summoning before their Lord – they have none beside Him as a Lord and Master, nor an intercessor – that they may attain salvation.
[69:44-46] Had he uttered any other teachings.We would have punished him.We would have stopped the revelations to him.
Note: These verses are warnings for Muhammad not to utter anything other than Quran but are teachings for us just to follow the revelation from God, what he left for us.
[75:16-19] Do not move your tongue to hasten it. It is we who will collect it into Quran. Once we recite it, you shall follow such a Quran. Then it is we who will explain it.
Note: Muhammad was forbidden from explaining Quran.
Muhammad’s religious practices
We know that all the religious rites that we practice today were revealed through prophet Ibrahim but existed at the time when the Quran was revealed as God preserved those rites through practices of people generation after generation. However, when Muhammad had been blessed with the Quran, God found him astray but guided him and commanded him to follow the religion of prophet Ibrahim, and he had done that being one of His chosen servants:
[93:7] He found you (Muhammad) astray, and guided you.
[40:66] Say, “I (Muhammad) have been enjoined from worshiping the idols you worship beside God, when the clear revelations came to me from my Lord. I was commanded to submit to the Lord of the universe.”
Note: Muhammad used to worship idols but stopped doing that when he had been blessed with the message (Quran).
[16:123] Then we inspired you (Muhammad) to follow the religion of Abraham, the monotheist; he never was an idol worshiper.
[4:125] Who is better guided in his religion than one who submits totally to God, leads a righteous life, according to the creed of Abraham: monotheism? God has chosen Abraham as a beloved friend.
[22:78] You shall strive for the cause of God as you should strive for His cause. He has chosen you (Muhammad) and has placed no hardship on you in practicing your religion – the religion of your father Abraham. He is the one who named you “Submitters” originally. Thus, the messenger shall serve as a witness among you, and you shall serve as witnesses among the people. Therefore, you shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and hold fast to God; He is your Lord, the best Lord and the best Supporter.
Note: when he became Muslim, he practiced the religious rites revealed through prophet Ibrahim for development of his own soul. The above verses are mentioned according to the order of revelation.
Respect Muhammad as a prophet
God chooses messengers from us to deliver His message to guide the people. Thus, He teaches us how we should respect them when they live with us or when they are not among us. The order for the contemporary believers to respect the messengers when they are alive is for the successful delivery of His message but such teaching is not applicable for the subsequent generation of believers when they are not among them:
[49:1] O you who believe, do not place your opinion above that of God and His messenger. You shall reverence God. God is Hearer, Omniscient.
Note: The messenger delivers the God’s message and strictly follows His commands, the believers should not have any opinion other than God and His messenger, and it does not matter whether he lives with us or not.
[49:2] O you who believe, do not raise your voices above the voice of the prophet, nor shall you shout at him as you shout at each other, lest your works become nullified while you do not perceive.
[49:3] Surely, those who lower their voices at the messenger of God are the ones whose hearts are prepared by God to become righteous. They have deserved forgiveness and a great recompense.
Note: Obviously, the contemporary believers could not possibly raise their voices above the prophet’s voice. In addition, respecting the prophet helps outsiders and visitors in coming to God’s message.
[49:4] As for those who call on you from outside the walls, most of them do not understand.
Note: As the prophet was a fatherly figure among the believers, it was not befitting for them to call him from the other side of the wall that also conforms to the order of enjoining them from marrying the wives of prophet after him (33:53). Also note that 49:2-4 are only applicable to the contemporary believers.
Muhammad’s recompense from God
Muhammad faithfully performed his job including leading a righteous life through appropriate belief and perfect practicing of religious rites according to the revelation given to him. Thus, the honest prophet qualified himself for a great recompense from God being obedient to Him at his all circumstances during his lifetime:
[68:2] You have attained a great blessing from your Lord; you are not crazy.
[68:3] You have attained a recompense that is well deserved.
[68:4] You are blessed with a great moral character.
Note: God has informed us about Mohammad’s recompense to serve it as a good news for the believers so that they can also make efforts to attain the same status if they follow what he had followed in his lifetime.
In conclusion, what we learn from examining the above sets of God’s instructions are: (1) ways and means that Muhammad used to fulfill all of his obligations including faithful delivery of the final scripture, (2) he became so successful that when he left this world, left with an assurance that he has attained a higher rank at God even being an idol worshiper and (3) what helped him to achieve such a great honor is to worship God alone following God’s teachings, laws and systems in the message revealed to him. Now those who really accept him as their role model, should uphold and use the same source realizing that everyone of us must worry about our own necks (5:105) giving up all weird ideas such as going to Heaven riding on his shoulder in disguise of intercession or pleasing him having beard (men) and covering hairs (women) or uttering “Hazrat” and “Sallallahu Alayhi wal-Salaam” before and after his name when he has no connection with this world any more, or using him as a source of income, and if anyone can do that has the opportunity to raise his status at God even equal to him before the departure of this world (17:80):
[5:105] O you who believe, you should worry only about your own necks. If the others go astray, they cannot hurt you, as long as you are guided. To God is your ultimate destiny, all of you, then He will inform you of everything you had done.
[17:80] And say, “My Lord, admit me an honorable admittance, and let me depart an honorable departure, and grant me from You a powerful support.”
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.