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Review of instances of qara-a and its derived in the Quran

Introduction

There are 88 instances in 5 derived forms in the Quran related to Qur’aan having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms as shown in the table below while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on the context. However, the instances of qur’aan meaning ‘Quran’ and the instances of qur’aanahu meaning ‘its recitation’ in the table have been covered in another writing:

Form Instances Arabic text Literal meanings No of occurrences Grammatical form
1 qara-a قَرَأَ To read or recite 16 Verb form I
2 nuq’ri-u نُقْرِئُ To make recite 1 Verb form IV
3 qurū قُرُوٓء Monthly periods 1 Noun
4 qur’ānahu قُرْآنَهُ its reading 2 Noun
5 qur’ān قُرْءَان Quran 68 Nominal

Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com

Here are highlights what we have learned from the verses having instances of talaa meaning ‘to recite’ may help us to better reflect on the Quran if we review them with the verses having instances of qara-a and its derived forms are being reviewed here:

  • Those who enjoin people to do the righteousness should also do it for themselves per the scripture.
  • Jews have said Christians have no basis and Christians have said Jews have no basis while both have been given scripture and God will judge them of their differing on a day of the Resurrection.
  • Those who have been given scripture should recite it as it should be its recitation being believers.
  • Messengers are raised among ourselves recite God’s revelations to purify and teach the people.
  • All food are made lawful for the Children of Israel except what Israel has made unlawful for them.
  • Whoever holds fast to God through His revelations recited to him he has been guided one.
  • People are not the same among the scripture who recite the scripture during the hours of the night.
  • Scripture teaches that we stand for the weak children, orphan girls and orphans with the justice.
  • It teaches us from story of two sons of Adam that God has accepted offer from the righteous one.
  • It teaches us to avoid gross sins: we do not associate anything with God but be good with our parents, we do not kill anyone or our children for fear of poverty and we do not come near adultery.
  • Who is given scripture but he has separated him from it to be a strayer when the Satan follows him.
  • When mentioned God has feared their hearts and recited His revelations has increased their faith.
  • When recited God’s revelations has said the disbelievers that these are tales from the past.
  • When recited God’s revelations has said those who do not hope for His meeting bring a Quran other than this or change it while the prophet said I do not follow except what is revealed to me.
  • We cannot be in a situation nor can we recite Quran nor can we do any deed without witnessing of our Lord nor can escape an atom weight or smaller or greater than that except being in clear record.
  • I have recited it when blessed by God, even you know I have been staying among you for long.
  • What he recites is a witness and the promised place of the party of the disbelievers is the Fire.
  • When recited they fall on their faces prostrating is an enjoinment for them to give proper attention.
  • Recite what has been revealed in which there is no change nor is there any refuge other than God.
  • When recited the denying can be recognized on the faces of disbelievers who are destined to Hell.
  • When recited whoever accepted he accepts guidance for himself but disbelievers have gone astray.
  • When recited the believers said it is the truth from our Lord even we have been submitters before.
  • God is not destroyer of any towns until its people are wicked except after reciting His revelations.
  • It has sufficed that what has been revealed through the scripture there is mercy and reminder in it.
  • When recited whoever has turned away is an arrogant as he does not hear as if he has a deafness.
  • When recited those who have disbelieved said this is fabricated lie and this is not but a clear magic.
  • what recited are signs is truth from God not to believe in any other hadiths except His revelations.
  • When recited the disbelievers have been proud but including them with a people of the criminals.
  • A message as messenger recites God’s revelations to bring the believers out of darkness into light.
  • A messenger raised among the gentiles recites to purify and teach them the scripture and wisdom.
  • Angel messenger recites the purified pages while a group of angels who recite God’s message.

There are 20 instances of qara-a and its derived forms are described below:

Instances of qara-a

There are 16 instances of qara-a in the verb form I meaning to read/recite found in 15 verses across 10 suras, which are detailed below:

[7:204] And when has been read the Quran (wa-idhaa quri-a al-qur’aanu), then you shall listen to it and shall pay attention that you are given mercy.

[10:94] So if you have been in doubt of what we have revealed to you, then you shall ask those who read the scripture before yourself (fa-sali alladheena yaqrauuna al-kitaabi min qablika). Certainly, has come to you the truth from your Lord, so you do not be with the doubters.

[16:98] So, when you have read the Quran (fa-idhaa qarata al-qur’aana), you shall seek refuge in God from the Satan, the rejected.

[17:14]  Read your record (iq’ra kitaabaka). It has sufficed with yourself today as a reckoner for you.

[17:45] And when you have read the Quran (wa-idhaa qarata al-qur’aana), we have placed between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter an invisible barrier.

[17:71] A day we call all human beings with their records. Then, whoever has been given his record in his right hand, then those will read their records (fa-ulaaika yaqrauuna kitaabakum), and they will not be wronged like a thin covering on a date seed.

[17:93] Or there is a house of luxury for you, or you ascend into the sky. And we will not believe for your ascension until you bring down a scripture to us we can read it (hattaa tunazzila kitaaban `alaynaa naqra-uhu).” Say: “Glory to my Lord, who I have been except a human messenger?

[17:106] And Quran we have divided it that you (Muhammad) can read it to the people over a period of time (litaqra-ahu `alaa al-naasi `alaa muk’thin); and we have revealed it a (gradual) revelation.

[26:199] Then he (Muhammad) has read it to them (fa-qara-ahu `alayhim), they have not been believers in it.

[69:19] Then as for whoever has been given his record in his right hand, while he says: “Here, read my record (haaumu iq’rauu kitaabiyah).”

[73:20] Indeed, your Lord knows that you (Muhammad) can stay awake a little less than two-third of the night, and its half, and its one-third, and so do a group of those who have been with yourself. And God determines the night and the day. He has known that you cannot adhere to it, so He has turned to you. So you shall read what has been easy of the Quran (fa-iq’rauu maa tayassara mina al-qur’aani). He has known that there will be sick among you, and others will travel in the land seeking for God’s bounty, and others will fight in path of God. So you shall read what has been easy of it (fa-iq’rauu maa tayassara min’hu), and shall observe the Contact Prayer and shall give the Obligatory Charity and shall loan God a best loan. And whatever of good you send forth for yourselves, you will find it with God, it is better and a greater reward. And you shall seek God’s forgiveness, indeed, God is Forgiving, Merciful.

[75:18] So when we have read it (fa-idhaa qaranaahu), then you shall follow its reading.

[84:21] And when has been read the Quran (wa-idhaa quri-a al-qur’aanu), they do not prostrate.

[96:1] Read in the name of your Lord who has created (iq’ra bi-ismi rabbika alladhee khalaqa).

[96:3] Read, and your Lord is the Exalted (iq’ra wa-rabbuka al-akramu).

Instance of nuq’ri-u

There is 1 instances of nuq’ri-u in the verb form V meaning to make read/recite found in 1 verse in 1 sura, which is detailed below:

[87:6] We will make you (Muhammad) read that you do not forget (sa-nuq’ri-uka fa-laa-tansaa).

Instance of quruu

There is 1 instance of quruu in the noun form meaning ‘monthly periods’ in 1 verse in 1 sura is described below:

[2:228] And the divorced women shall wait of themselves for three monthly cycles (wal-mutalaqaatu yatarabbasna bi-anfusihinna thalaathata quruuin). And it does not make lawful for them that they conceal what God has created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the Last Day. It is their husbands’ privilege of their back during that if they wish for reconciliation. And for them it is like that which is on them in the right manner, and for the men on them (ex-wives) is a degree. And God is Almighty, Wise.

Instance of qur’aanahu

There are 2 instances of qur’aanahu meaning ‘its reading’ in 2 verses in 1 sura, are described below:

[75:17] Indeed, upon us is its collection and its reading (inna `alaynaa jam’ahu wa-qur’aanahu).

[75:18] So when we have read it, then you shall follow its reading (fa-ittabi` qur’aanahu).

Summary

  • When the Quran is read, you shall listen to and shall pay attention to it to receive mercy from God.
  • What has been revealed to you (Muhammad) is the truth from God should have no doubt about it.
  • When you read the Quran shall seek refuge in God from the Satan the rejected, which is not a commandment from God for customary recitation at the beginning of reading from the Quran rather to contrate to the reading that we can have the appropriate message from the reading.
  • Everyone will appear before God with his record when made him to read it as a reckoning.
  • Those who will be given their records in their right hand, will read their records, and they will have no injustice, while they will also invite others to read their records.
  • When you read the Quran, an invisible barrier is placed between you and the disbeliever in the Hereafter, is the root cause of why wickedness is noticed among people when shared from Quran.
  • Muhammad has not been except a human messenger and could not bring any other scripture to read for them as claimed of his contemporaries.
  • Quran is a revelation from God, which has been divided that prophet can read it to the people over a period of time while we know that the entire Quran has been inspired to prophet’s soul all at once.
  • Prophet read the Quran to his contemporaries but many of them were not the believers.
  • God has urged prophet and those who have been believers with him to read the Quran in every night as much as they can read; and to observe salat and give zakat and loan God a good loan.
  • When what has been collected and read to the prophet, he has only followed such reading.
  • When has been read the Quran, they do not prostrate, is not a commandment from God for making physical prostration except for paying attention to God’s revelations given as our guidance.
  • Prophet was asked to read in the name of his Lord who has created being the Exalted.
  • The divorced women have to wait for three monthly cycles to remarry, but it is their husbands’ privilege of their back of the divorced wives to their ex-husbands because of their pregnancy if their husbands wish for reconciliation.

Conclusion

The instances of talaa in the verb form meaning to recite and its different grammatical forms as well as the instances of qara-a meaning to read and its grammatical forms as well can give us clear messages centering the Quran being Quran in the nominal (proper noun) form. The prophet has recited/read what has been recited/read to him while God has urged the prophet and who have been believers with him to read the Quran every night as much as they can read, even this direction is applicable to those who believe in Quran and follow it. Even theses instances are very crucial to know our guidance, but there are also other key words in the verb form such as yatadabbaru meaning to reflect on, sami`a meaning to listen, tahajjad meaning to meditate, ansitu meaning to pay attention and ittaba`a meaning to follow should not be taken lightly when we explore the Quran to interpret messages in the Quran that we can avoid misinterpretation and misconceptions around us.

God wants us to read the Quran as we should read it otherwise its reading would be like the behavior of disbelievers or who have said that these are tales from the past being proud including with criminals.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.
Tafazzal (7/10/2019).