The instances of Arabic words from the root: waaw, qaaf and yaa (و ق ي) occurs 258 times in the Quran, in 8 derived forms having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com
ittaqaa, taqwaa and muttaqeen are closely related words being different in grammatical forms. 17 instances of taqwaa meaning “righteousness” in the noun form and 49 instances of muttaqeen meaning “righteous” in the active participle form have already been reviewed to understand the message in different context in the Quran being crucial for us to attain righteousness with God. However, 166 instances of ittaqaa in the verb form meaning “to become righteous” or “to fear” found in 157 verses across 42 suras are being reviewed to understand how we can become righteous as well.
Instances of ittaqaa
There are 166 instances of ittaqaa meaning “to become righteous” or “to fear” found in 157 verses across 42 suras in the Quran. However, 93 instances found in 85 verses across 10 suras are reviewed in the previous sermons while 73 instances in the 72 verses across 32 suras are reviewed here:
[12:57] And surely, the reward of the Hereafter is better for those who have believed and have done to fear (God) (wa-kaanuu yattaquuna).
[12:90] They said: “Are you indeed Joseph?” He said: “I am Joseph, and this is my brother. God has been gracious upon us. Indeed, who fears (God) (innahu man ittaqi) and is patient, then God does not let go waste the reward of the good workers.”
[12:109] And we have not sent from before yours (Muhammad) except men, we revealed to them from the people of the towns. So have they not traveled in the earth and seen how was the punishment of those who were before them? And surely, the abode of the Hereafter is better for those who fear (God) (lilladheena ittaqaw). Then would you not reflect?
[13:35] The example of Paradise which is promised to the righteous, is the rivers flow from beneath it, its provision is everlasting and its shade as well. This is the end of those who fear (God) (tilka `uqbaa alladheena ittaqaw), while the end of the disbelievers is the Fire.
[15:69] “And you (people of Lut) shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and do not disgrace me!”
[16:2] He sends down the angels with the Spirit (Gabriel) of His commands to whomever He wills from His servants that you shall warn that there is no god except I. So, you shall fear Me (fa-ittaquuni).
[16:30] And it is said to those who fear (God) (wa-qeela lilladheena ittaqaw): “What has your Lord sent down?” They say:” Good.” For those who do good in this world is goodness and surely, the home of the Hereafter is better. And surely, excellent is the home of the righteous.
[16:52] And to Him belong what is in the heavens and in the earth, and to Him belong the religion of steadfast (worship). Will you then fear other than God (a-fa-ghayra allahi tattaquuna)?
[16:128] Indeed, God is with those who fear (Him) (inna allaha ma`a alladheena ittaqaw) and those of them who are the good doers.
[19:72] Then we will save those who feared (God) (thumma nunajjee alladheena ittaqaw), and we will leave the wicked in it (Hell) on compliance).
[20:113] And thus that we have sent it down – an Arabic Quran, and we have explained with the warning in it that they fear (God) (la’`allahum yattaquuna) or it may cause for them a remembrance.
[22:1] O you people, you shall fear your Lord (ittaquu rabbakum). Indeed, the quaking of the Hour is a terrible thing.
[23:23] And certainly, we sent Noah to his people, while he said: “O my people, you shall worship God, there is no god for you other than Him. Will you not then fear (Him) (a-fa’laa-tattaquuna)?”
[23:32] So we sent a messenger to them from them that “You shall worship God, there is no god for you other than Him. Will you not then fear (Him) (a-fa’laa-tattaquuna)?”
[23:52] “And indeed, this – your community is one community; and I am your Lord, so you shall fear Me (wa-anaa rabbukum fa-ittaquuni).”
[23:87] They will say: “God.” Say: “Will you not then fear (Him) (a-fa’laa-tattaquuna)?”
[24:52] And whoever obeys God and His messenger, and reveres God and fears Him (wa-yakhsha allaha wa-yattaqhi), then those of them are the succeeded ones.
[26:11] “Pharaoh’s people. Will they not fear (Me) (a-laa-yattaquuna)?”
[26:106] When their brother, Noah said to them: “Will you not fear (God) (a-laa-tattaquuna)?”
[26:108] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:110] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:124] When their brother Hud said to them: “Will you not fear (God) (a-laa-tattaquuna)?”
[26:126] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:131] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:132] “And you shall fear the One (wa-ittaquu alladhee) who provided you with what you know.”
[26:142] When their brother Saleh said to them: “Will you not fear (God) (a-laa tattaquuna)?”
[26:144] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:150] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:161] When their brother Lot said to them: “Will you not fear (God) (a-laa-tattaquuna)?”
[26:163] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:177] When Shu’aib said to them: “Will you not fear God (a-laa-tattaquuna)?”
[26:179] “So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[26:184] “And you shall fear the One (wa-ittaquu alladhee) who created you and the earlier generations.”
[27:53] And we saved those who believed and used to fear (God) (wa-kaanuu yattaquuna).
[29:16] And Abraham when he said to his people: “You shall worship God and fear Him (u`buduu allahi wa-ittaquuhu), that is better for you if you knew.”
[30:31] Those who have turned towards Him; and you shall fear Him (wa-ittaquuhu) and shall observe the Contact Prayer, and you would not be with the idol-worshipers.
[31:33] O mankind, you shall fear your Lord (ittaquu rabbakum), and shall fear a day, a father cannot help his child, nor can a child help his father anyway. Indeed, God’s promise is truth. So, the life of the world should not deceive you nor should the deceiver deceive you about God.
[33:1] O you prophet, you shall fear God (ittaqi` allaha), and you do not obey the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Indeed, God is Knower, Wise.
[33:32] O wives of the prophet, you have not been like anyone of the women. If you have feared (God) (in ittaqaytunna), then you do not be soft in speech that whoever has a disease in his heart will move with desire, and you shall speak an appropriate speaking.
[33:37] And you (Muhammad) said to whom God has bestowed favor on him and you have bestowed on him: “Keep your wife to yourself and fear God (amsik `alayka zawjaka wa-ittaqi allaha).” And you concealed within yourself what God was to disclose, and you feared the people, while God is worthy that you should fear Him. So, when Zaid ended his relationship from her, we wished you to have her as spouse that there is no wrongdoing for the believers for the wives of their adopted sons when they have ended relationship from them. And God’s command has to be done.
[33:55] There is no sin upon them (women) around their fathers nor their sons, nor their brothers, nor sons of their brothers, nor sons of their sisters, nor their women, nor what they rightfully possess (their male servants). And you (women) shall fear God (wa-ittaqeena allaha). Indeed, God is a Witness over all things.
[33:70] O you who believed, you shall fear God (ittaquu allaha) and speak a right word.
[36:45] And when they are told: “You shall fear your present and your past (ittaquu maa bayna aydeekum wa-maa kalfakum) that you are given mercy.”
[37:124] When he said to his people: “Will you not fear (God) (a-laa-tattaquuna)?”
[39:10] Say: “O My servants who believed, you shall fear your Lord (ittaquu rabbakum).” For those who have done good in this world, there is good and God’s earth is specious. Only the steadfast will be paid back their reward in full without counting.
[39:16] For them there will have from above them coverings of the Fire and coverings from below them. That is (what) God frightens His servants with it: “O My servants, so you shall fear Me (yaa`ibadee fa-ittaquuni).”
[39:20] But those who fear their Lord (laakini alladheena ittaqaw rabbahum), for them, are lofty mansions after lofty mansions built above them, with rivers flowing beneath them. This is God’s promise, and God does not break the promise.
[39:24] Does he then fear with his face (a-faman ittaqee biwajhi) the worst punishment on the Day of Resurrection? It will be said to the wrongdoers: “Taste the consequences of what you earned.”
[39:28] A Quran in Arabic, is without having crookedness that they become righteous (la’`allahum yattaquuna).
[39:61] And God will save those who feared (Him) (alladheena ittaqaw) with their recompense. No harm will touch them, nor will they grieve.
[39:73] And those who feared their Lord (alladheena ittaqaw rabbahum) will be driven to Paradise in groups until when they reach it; and its gates will be open and its guards will say to them: “Peace be upon you. You have done well, so enter it as permanent residents.”
[41:18] And we saved those who believed and accomplished in fearing (God) (wa-kaanuu yattaquuna).
[43:63] And when Jesus came with the clear proofs, he said: “Indeed, I have come to you with the wisdom, and that I make clear some of which you dispute in it. So you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[47:36] The life of the world is no more than a play and amusement. And if you believe and fear (God) (wa-in tuminuu wa-ittaquu), He will give you your rewards, and He will not ask you for your wealth.
[49:1] O you who have believed, you do not place (your opinion) before God and His messenger, and shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha). Indeed, God is Hearer, Knower.
[49:10] Only the believers are brothers; so you shall make peace between your brothers and shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) that you are given mercy.
[49:12] O you who have believed, you shall avoid much suspicion, indeed, some suspicion is sin. And you shall not spy, nor shall you backbite some of you to others. Would be one of you like that he eats the flesh of his dead brother? Thus, you would hate this and shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha). Indeed, God is Redeemer, Merciful.
[53:32] Those who avoid gross sins and evil thoughts, except for minor faults; indeed, your Lord’s forgiveness is immense. He is Knower of you when He created you from the earth and when you were embryos in your mothers’ wombs. So, you do not assign uprightness to yourselves; He is Knower of who fears (Him) (huwa a`lamu bi-mani ittaqaa).
[57:28] O you who believed, you shall fear God and believe in His messenger (ittaquu allaha wa-aamanuu bi-rasuulihi), He will give you double (reward) from His mercy, and He will make for you a light, you can walk with it, and He will forgive you. Indeed, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
[58:9] O you who believed, when you confer, do not confer for sin nor aggression nor disobedience to the messenger but confer for righteousness and piety. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), the One to Him you all will be gathered.
[59:7] Whatever God provided to His messenger from the people of the towns belongs to God and His messenger, and for the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer that it does not become a circulation between the rich among you. And whatever the messenger gives you, then take it and whatever he forbids you from it, then refrain from. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) as God is severe in the retribution.
[59:18] O you who believed, you shall fear God (ittaquu allaha), and let every soul look what it has put forth for tomorrow. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) as God is Cognizant of what you do.
[60:11] If any of your wives from you has gone to the disbelievers, once your turn comes then give to those (believers) whose wives have gone like of what they had spent. And you shall fear God whom you are believers in (ittaquu allaha alladhee antum bihi muminuuna).
[64:16] So, you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) as best you can, and listen, and obey, and spend, is better for yourselves. Whoever is got rid of his own greediness, these are the succeeded ones.
[65:1] O you prophet, when you divorce the women, then you shall divorce them for their waiting period and keep count for the period, and you shall fear God your Lord (wa-ittaquu allaha rabbakum). Do not evict them from their homes, nor should they leave except that they commit of a proven immorality. And these are God’s limits and whoever transgresses God’s limits, then he has certainly wronged himself. You never know that God will bring about something good after that.
[65:2] Once they have reached their term, then you shall either reconcile with them in an amicable manner, or separate with them in an amicable manner. And you shall have witness of two equitable men from you and establish the testimony for God. That is made with it for him who has believed in God and the Last Day. And who fears God (wa-man yattaqi allaha), He will make a way out for him.
[65:4] And those who of your women have reached the menopause, if you doubt, their term is three months. And those who do not menstruate and those are pregnant, their term until they deliver their burdens. And whoever fears God (wa-man yattaqi allaha), He will make of his affair ease for him.
[65:5] That is God’s command, He has sent it down to you. And whoever fears God (wa-man yattaqi allaha), He removes his evil deeds from him, and makes great for him a reward.
[65:10] Indeed, God has prepared a severe punishment for them. So, you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha), O men of understanding – those who have believed. Indeed, God has sent down to you a message.
[71:3] “That you shall worship God and shall fear Him (u`buduu allahi wa-ittaquuhu) and shall obey me.”
[73:17] So how do you fear (God) (fa-kayfa tattaquuna) if you disbelieve a Day, the children will become grey haired?
[92:5] Then as for him who gives and fears (God) (fa-ammaa man a`taa wa-ittaqaa).
This study may help the believers to succeed in the Hereafter if they fear God reflecting to: good work does not go astray, allegorical description of Paradise, no god except God and worship Him, religion from God, God is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, the Day the world will come to an end, believers to be saved, no help from anyone on the Judgment Day, backbiting is like eating of flesh of his dead brother, prophet and his wives, prophet’s marriage with the wife of his adopted son, dress code for the women, God’s threatening, compensation in the Hereafter, worldly life is no more than a play and amusement, making peace between believers, waiting period for divorce, forgiveness of God and immense reward from Him, severe punishment from God, establish right and justice, listening and obeying God and spending for Him, God does not ask money from us, message of all prophets and messengers to their people to believe and fear God to succeed.
Many of us are not certain how they can be righteous to God, and the review of instances of taqwaa, muttaqeen and ittaqaa in different grammatical forms as well as in different context may provide them ways and means to be righteous knowing from guidance given by God. Thus, God is our guide and has given us the clear guidance in which we can find right path to return to Him if we truly believe and fear Him and follow His guidance for avoiding misguidance, disgrace, and deviation we are surrounded by as His guidance is the true guidance (2:120 and 6:71).
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.