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Review of instances of ittaqaa (ٱتَّقَىٰ) in the Quran- Part I

Introduction

The instances of Arabic words from the root: waaw, qaaf and yaa (و ق ي) occurs 258 times in the Quran, in 8 derived forms having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:

Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com

258 instances rooted from: waaw, qaaf and yaa (و ق ي) can broadly be grouped into 3 forms: 182 as the verb, 24 as the noun and 52 as the participle form. 17 instances of taqwaa meaning “righteousness” in the noun form and 49 instances of muttaqeen meaning “righteous” in the active participle form have already been reviewed to understand the message in different context in the Quran being crucial for us to attain righteousness with God. However, 166 instances of ittaqaa in the verb form meaning “to be righteous” or “to fear” found in 157 verses across 42 suras are being reviewed to understand how we can become righteous as well.

Instances of ittaqaa

Out of 166 instances of ittaqaa meaning “to become righteous” found in 157 verses across 42 suras in the Quran, 43 instances found in 40 verses across 2 suras are described below:

[2:21] O you the people, you shall worship your Lord, the One who has created you and those before yourselves that you become righteous (la’`allakum tattaquuna).

[2:24] And if you cannot do and you will never do; then fear the Fire whose fuel are the people and the stones (fa-ittaquu al-naara allatee wa-quuduhaa al-naasu wal-hijaaratu), has been prepared for the disbelievers.

[2:41] And you shall believe in what I have sent down confirming what is with you, and do not be the first disbeliever of it (Quran) and do not exchange with My revelations for a small price, and Me alone is you shall fear Me (wa-iyyaaya fa-ittaquuni).

[2:48] And you shall fear a day (wa-ittaquu yawman), no soul will avail another soul, nor will any intercession be accepted from it, nor will any ransom be taken, nor will they be helped.

[2:63] And we have taken your covenant and have raised the mount above you: “You shall hold what we have given you with strength and shall remember what is in it that you become righteous (wa-udhkuruu maa feehi la’`allakum tattaquuna).”

[2:103] And if that they had believed and feared (wa-law annahum aamanuu wa-ittaqaw), surely, a reward with God was better if they had done to know.

[2:123] And you shall fear a day (wa-ittaquu yawman), no soul will avail anything of another soul, nor will any compensation be accepted from it, nor will any intercession benefit it nor will they be helped.

[2:179] And for you in the equitable retribution is life, O people of understanding that you become righteous (la’`allakum tattaquuna).

[2:183] O you who have believed, fasting is decreed for you as was decreed for those of before yours that you become righteous (la’`allakum tattaquuna).

[2:187] It has been made lawful for you the approach to your women in night of the fasting. They are garments for you and you are garments for them. God knows that you have committed to deceive yourselves, so He has turned to you and has had mercy on you. So now you should approach them and shall seek what God has prescribed for you. And you shall eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct from the black thread of the dawn; then you shall complete the fast until the night. And you should not approach them while you are secluded in the masjids. This is of God’s limits, so you should not approach it. Thus that God makes clear His revelations for the people that they may become righteous (la’`allahum yattaquuna).

[2:189] They ask you (Muhammad) about phases of the moon (al-ahillati in plural feminine form). Say, “They are timing indicators for the people and the Hajj.” And it is not the uprightness with that you come to the houses from their backs, except having the uprightness of the one who fears (wa-laakinna al-birra mani ittaqaa). And you shall come to the houses from their doors and you shall fear God that you can succeed (wa-ittaquu allaha la’`allakum tuflihuuna).

[2:194] The sacred month is the sacred month but the violations are subjected to just retribution. So anyone who transgressed upon you, then you shall transgress upon him in the same manner as he transgressed upon you. And you shall fear God and should know that God is with the righteous (wa-ittaquu allaha //wa-i`lamuu anna ma`a al-muttaqeena).

[2:196] And you shall complete the Hajj and the `Umrah for God. So, if you have been prevented, then whatever has been obtained with ease from the animal of sacrifice, and you cannot shave your heads until the animal of sacrifice reaches its destination. So, whoever among you has been ill or with an ailment of his head, then expiation either by fasting or charity or sacrifice. So, when you have been secure, then whoever has taken advantage of the `Umrah to the Hajj, then whatever has been obtained with ease from the animal of sacrifice. But whoever cannot find, then fasting of three days during the Hajj and seven when you have returned. This is ten in all; that is for whoever of his family would not be near the Sacred Masjid. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and shall know that God is severe in the retribution.

[2:197] The Hajj is in known months. So whoever has approached to the Hajj in them, then there shall be no sexual relation, nor wickedness, nor argument during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, God knows it; and you shall take provision, is indeed, the best provision is the righteousness. And you shall fear Me O people of understanding (wa-ittaquuni yaauli al-baabi).

[2:203] And you shall remember God in a number of days. But whoever hurries in two days, then there is no sin upon him; and whoever delays, then there is no sin upon him for whoever fears (wa-man ta-akhara fa-laa ith’ma `alayhi limani ittaqaa). And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and know that before Him you will be gathered.

[2:206] And when it is said to him: “You shall fear God (ittaqi allaha),” the pride surrounds him with the sins. Then Hell is enough for him, surely, an evil place of resting.

[2:212] The worldly life is beautified for the disbelievers, and they mock those who believed. And those who fear (wal-ladheena ittaqaw), they will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. God provides whomever He wills without measure.

[2:223] Your women are a tilth for you. So, you shall approach to your tilth as you wish and shall send forth for yourselves. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) and shall know that you will meet Him, and you shall give good news to the believers.

[2:224] And do not make God the subject for your oaths that you do good. And you shall fear (wa-ittaquu) and make peace between the people while God is knowledgeable Hearer.

[2:231] And when you divorce the women, while they reach their term, then you shall either retain them in a fair manner or release them in a fair manner. And do not retain them to harm that you transgress. And whoever does that then indeed, he has wronged to himself; and do not take God’s revelations as a jest. And remember God’s favor upon you and what was sent down to you of the scripture and the wisdom, He warns you with it. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) and know that God is Knower of everything.

[2:233] And the mothers are to suckle their children for two whole years for whoever wishes to complete the suckling. And upon the father for him is their provisions and clothing in a fair manner. No soul is burdened except its means. No mother is made to suffer because of her child nor is father for him because of his child, and upon the heir is like that. However, if they both wish weaning through mutual consent and council, then there is no sin upon them. And if you want to ask any other women to suckle your child, then there is no sin upon you if you pay what you give in a fair manner. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and know that God is Seer of what you do.

[2:278] O you who have believed, you shall fear God (ittaquu allaha) and give up what remained of the usury if you are believers.

[2:281] And you shall fear a day (wa-ittaquu yawman) in which you will be brought back to God, then every soul will be paid in full what it has earned, they will not be wronged.

[2:282] O you who have believed, when you have contracted with one another of a debt for a fixed term, then you shall write it. And a scribe should write between you with the justice. And a scribe should not refuse that he writes as God has taught him. So he should write and the one on him is the liability should dictate and he should fear God, his Lord (wal-yattaqi allaha rabbahu) and will not diminish from it in anything. Then if the one on him is the liability has been of limited knowledgeable, or weak or cannot act that he can dictate, then his guardian should dictate with the justice. And you shall have two witnesses from among your men. And if not be two men, then a man and two women of whom you accept among the witnesses that one of the two errs, then the other one of the two will remind. And the witnesses should not refuse when that they have been called. And they do not tire as you write it whether small or large for its term. That is more just with God and more uprightness for the testimony and is better that you do not doubt, except that a transaction you execute among yourselves would be on the spot, then it has not been any sin on you that you do not write it. And you shall have witness when you have made business transaction. Neither scribe nor witness are harmed, and if you do, then indeed, it is a sin for you, and you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha). And God teaches you and God is Knower of everything.

[2:283] And if you are on a journey and you do not find a scribe, then are pledges with possession. If you trust each other then let the one who is entrusted deliver his trust, and let him fear God, his Lord (wal-yattaqi allaha rabbahu). And do not conceal the testimony, and whoever conceals it, then indeed, he has sinful heart. And God is Knower of what you do.

[3:15] Say: “Shall I inform you of better than all that? For those who feared with their Lord (lilladheena ittaqaw `inda rabbihim), are gardens flowing rivers underneath them will abide therein forever, and are pure spouses and acceptance from God. And God is Seer of the servants.”

[3:28] “Let not the believers take the disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. And whoever does that, then he has not from God in anything except that you fear from them as precaution (illaa an tattaquu minhum tuqaatan). And God warns you of Himself, while to God are the final destination.”

[3:50] “And confirming what was before me (Jesus) of the Torah, and that I make lawful for you some of that which was forbidden to you; and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”

[3:76] Indeed, whoever obliges to his pledge and fears (balaa man awfaa bi`ahdihi wa-ittaqaa), then indeed, God loves the righteous.

[3:102] O you who have believed, you shall fear God as His fearing should be (ittaquu allaha haqqa tuqaatihi), and do not die except while you are submitters.

[3:120] If a good befalls you, it grieves them, and if misfortune befalls you, they rejoice with it. And if you are patient and fear (wa-in tasbiruu wa-tattaquu), their plotting in anything will not harm you. Indeed, God is Encompassing of what they do.

[3:123] And certainly, God helped you in Badr while you had been week, so you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) that you show appreciation.

[3:125] Indeed, if you are patient and fear (balaa in tasbiruu wa-tattaquu), and they come upon you suddenly of them, when your Lord will support you with five thousand of the trained angels.

[3:130] O you who have believed, you shall not consume the usury for multiplying doubled, And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) that you may succeed.

[3:131] And you shall fear the Fire (wa-ittaquu al-naara) which is prepared for the disbelievers.

[3:172] Those who responded to God and the messenger after the injury had befallen them, there is a great reward for those among them who did good and feared God (wa-ittaqaw).

[3:179] God was not to leave the believers on what you are on now until He distinguishes the evil from the good. And God was not to inform you about the unseen other than God chooses of His messengers whomever He wishes; so believe in God and His messengers and if you believe and fear (wa-in tu’minuu and ittaquu), then for you there is a great reward.

[3:186] Certainly, you will be tested in your money and yourselves. And certainly, you will hear a lot of insult from those who have been given the scripture before yourselves and from those who associate partners (with God). But if you are patient and fear (wa-in tasbiruu wa-tattaquu), that is of determination factors.

[3:198] While those who have fear their Lord (laakini alladheena ittaqaw rabbahum), for them there are gardens flowing rivers from underneath them will abide forever therein, is a reception from God. What is with God is better for the obedient.

[3:200] O you who have believed, you shall be steadfast and shall be patient and shall be consistent and shall fear God (is’biruu wa-saabiruu wa-rabituu wa-ittaquu allaha) that you can succeed.

Conclusion

Even the review of a set of 43 instances of ittaqaa found in 40 verses across 2 suras teaches us how the believers can succeed with their Lord being qualified for gardens flowing rivers from underneath them wherein they will abide forever. They are steadfast, patient, consistent, God fearing and obedient to God as they fear God, their Lord, the Fire and a Day of the Resurrection. Thus, not only the understanding of the close relation of taqwaa, muttaqeena and ittaqaa based on their grammatical forms rooted from the same but also reflecting to the context of sacred month, fasting, intercession, phases of the moon, Hajj and `Umrah, compensation of mothers for suckling their children, usury and the financial transactions to return to a good place, which is a place of security with unlimited provisions and enjoyments for the righteous.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.
Tafazzal (7/26/2019).