The instances of Arabic words from the root: waaw, qaaf and yaa (و ق ي) occurs 258 times in the Quran, in 8 derived forms having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com
258 instances rooted from: waaw, qaaf and yaa (و ق ي) can broadly be grouped into 3 forms: 182 as the verb, 24 as the noun and 52 as the participle form. 17 instances of taqwaa meaning “righteousness” in the noun form and 49 instances of muttaqeen meaning “righteous” in the active participle form have already been reviewed to understand the message in different context in the Quran being crucial for us to attain righteousness with God. However, 166 instances of ittaqaa in the verb form meaning “to be righteous” or “to fear” found in 157 verses across 42 surahs are being reviewed to understand how we can be righteous as well.
Instances of ittaqaa
Out of 166 instances of ittaqaa meaning “to be righteous or to fear” found in 157 verses across 42 suras in the Quran, 43 instances found in 40 verses across 2 surahs are described below:
[2:21] O you the people, you shall worship your Lord, the One who has created you and those before yourselves that you may be righteous (la’`allakum tattaquuna).
[2:24] So if you cannot do and you will never do; then you shall fear the Fire of which its fuel is the people and the stones (fa-ittaquu al-naara allatee wa-quuduhaa al-naasu wal-hijaaratu), has been prepared for the disbelievers.
[2:41] And you shall believe in what I have sent down confirming what is with you, and do not be a first disbeliever of it (Quran) and do not exchange of My revelations for a small price, and Me alone that you shall fear Me (wa-iyyaaya fa-ittaquuni).
[2:48] And you shall fear a day (wa-ittaquu yawman), no soul will avail from another soul, nor will any intercession be accepted from it, nor will any ransom be taken, nor will they be helped.
[2:63] And we have taken your covenant and have raised the mount above you: “You shall grasp what we have given you with strength and shall remember what is in it that you may be righteous (wa-udh’kuruu maa feehi la’`allakum tattaquuna).”
[2:103] And if that they had believed and feared (wa-law annahum aamanuu wa-ittaqaw), surely, there would have been a better reward with God if they had done to know.
[2:123] And you shall fear a day (wa-ittaquu yawman), no soul will avail anything from another soul, nor will any compensation be accepted from it, nor will any intercession benefit it nor will they be helped.
[2:179] And for you there is life in the law of retribution, O people of understanding that you may be righteous (la’`allakum tattaquuna).
[2:183] O you who have believed, the fasting has been decreed upon you as what has been decreed upon those before yourselves that you may be righteous (la’`allakum tattaquuna).
[2:187] It has been made lawful for you the approach to your women in a night of the fasting. They are garments for you and you are garments for them. God knows that you have committed to deceive yourselves, so He has turned to you and has had mercy on you. So now you shall approach them and shall seek what God has prescribed for you. And you shall eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct from the black thread of the dawn; then you shall complete the fast until the night. And you do not approach them, while you are secluded in the masjids. That is of God’s limits, so you do not approach to it. Thus that God makes clear His revelations for the people that they may be righteous (la’`allahum yattaquuna).
[2:189] They ask you (Muhammad) about phases of the moon (al-ahillati in plural feminine form). Say, “They are timing indicators for the people and the Hajj.” And it has not been the uprightness with that you come to the houses from their backs, except having the uprightness of the one who fears (God) (wa-laa-kinna al-birra ittaqaa ). And you shall come to the houses from their doors, and shall fear God that you can succeed (wa-ittaquu allaha la’`allakum tuf’lihuuna).
[2:194] The sacred month is the sacred month but the violations are subject to just retribution. So whoever has transgressed upon you, then you shall transgress upon him in the same manner as he has transgressed upon you. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) and shall know that God is with the righteous.
[2:196] And you shall complete the Hajj and the `Umrah for God. So, if you have been prevented, then (offer) whatever has been obtained with ease from the animal of sacrifice, and do not shave your heads until the animal of sacrifice reaches its destination. So, whoever among you has been ill or with an ailment of his head, then expiation either by fasting or giving to charity or any sacrifice. So, when you have been secure, then whoever has taken advantage of the `Umrah to the Hajj, then (offer) whatever has been obtained with ease from the animal of sacrifice. But whoever cannot find, then fasting of three days during the Hajj and seven when you have returned. That is ten in all; that is for whoever of his family would not be near the Sacred Masjid. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and shall know that God is severe in the retribution.
[2:197] The Hajj months are well known. So whoever has intended to perform the Hajj in them, then there is no sexual relation, nor wickedness, nor argument during the Hajj. And whatever of good you do, God knows it; and you shall have provision, then indeed, the best provision is the righteousness. And you shall fear Me O people of understanding (wa-ittaquuni yaa’uli al-baabi).
[2:203] And you shall remember God in a number of days (at Mina). But whoever has hurried in two days, then there is no sin upon him; and whoever has delayed, then there is no sin upon him for whoever has feared (God) (wa-man ta-akhara fa-laa ith’ma `alayhi limani ittaqaa). And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and shall know that before Him you will be gathered.
[2:206] And when it has been said to him: “You shall fear God (ittaqi allaha),” the pride has surrounded him with the sins. Then his enough is Hell, and surely, an evil place of resting.
[2:212] The life of the world has made fair-seeming to those who have disbelieved, and they mock of those who have believed; and those who fear (God) (wa-alladheena ittaqaw), they will be above them on a Day of the Resurrection. And God provides whomever He wills without reckoning.
[2:223] Your women are a tilth for you. So, you shall come to your tilth when you have wished and shall send forth for yourselves. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) and shall know that you will meet Him. And you (Muhammad) shall give good news to the believers.
[2:224] And do not make God an excuse for your oaths that you do good, and be righteous (wa-ittaquu), and make peace between the people. And God is Hearer, Knower.
[2:231] And when you have intended to divorce the women, but they have reached their term, then either you shall retain them in a fair manner or shall release them in a fair manner. And do not retain them to harm that you transgress. And whoever does that, then indeed, he has wronged to himself. And do not take God’s revelations in jest. And you shall remember God’s favor upon you and what He has sent down to you of the scripture and the wisdom to instruct you with it. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) and shall know that God is Knower of everything.
[2:233] And the mothers should suckle their children for complete two years for whoever has wished to complete the suckling. And upon the father for him is their provision and clothing in a fair manner. No soul is burdened except its means. No mother is made to suffer of her child nor is father for him of his child, and upon the heir is like that. Then if they both have wished weaning from mutual consent of both of them and consultation, then there is no sin upon both of them. And if you have intended to ask any other women to suckle your child, then there is no sin upon you when you have paid what you have given in a fair manner. And you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha), and shall know that God is Seer of what you do.
[2:278] O you who have believed, you shall fear God (ittaquu allaha) and shall give up what has remained of the usury if you have been believers.
[2:281] And you shall fear a day (wa-ittaquu yawman) you will be brought back to God in it, then every soul will be paid in full what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.
[2:282] O you who have believed, when you have contracted with one another of a debt for a fixed term, then you shall write it. And a scribe should write between you with the justice. And a scribe should not refuse that he writes as what God has taught him. So he should write and should dictate the one on whom is the liability and he should fear God, his Lord (wal-yattaqi allaha rabbahu) and he does not diminish anything from it. Then if the one on him is the liability has been of limited knowledgeable, or weak or cannot act that he can dictate, then his guardian should dictate with the justice. And you shall have two witnesses from your men. Then if not be two men, then a man and two women of whom you accept of the witnesses that one of the two errs, then the other one of the two will remind. And the witnesses should not refuse when that they have been called. And they do not tire as you write it whether small or large for its term. That is more just with God and more uprightness for the testimony and is better that you do not doubt, except that a transaction you execute among yourselves would be on the spot, then it has not been any sin on you that you do not write it. And you shall have witness when you have made business transaction. Neither scribe nor witness are harmed, and if you do, then indeed, it is a sin for you, and you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha). And God teaches you and God is Knower of everything.
[2:283] And if you have been on a journey and you do not find a scribe, then is pledge in possession. If you have trusted one of you to other then let the one who has been entrusted deliver his trust, and let him fear God, his Lord (wal-yattaqi allaha rabbahu). And do not conceal the testimony, and whoever conceals it, then indeed, he is sinful of his heart. And God is Knower of what you do.
[3:15] Say: “Shall I inform you of better than all that? For those who have feared (God) (lilladheena ittaqaw), with their Lord are gardens flowing the rivers of their underneath as dwellers in them, and are pure spouses and acceptance from God. And God is Seer of the servants.”
[3:28] “The believers will not take the disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. And whoever does that, then he has not from God in anything except that you fear from them as precaution (illaa an tattaquu minhum tuqaatan). And God warns you of Himself, and to God is the final return.”
[3:50] “And confirming that what was before me (Jesus) of the Torah, and that I make lawful for you some of that which has been forbidden to you; and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) and obey me.”
[3:76] Nay, whoever has fulfilled his pledge and has feared (God) (balaa man awfaa bi`ahdihi wa-ittaqaa), then indeed, God loves the righteous.
[3:102] O you who have believed, you shall fear God as truth of His fear (ittaquu allaha haqqa tuqaatihi), and do not die except while you are submitters.
[3:120] If a good befalls you, it grieves them, and if a misfortune befalls you, they rejoice with it. And if you are patient and fear (God) (wa-in tasbiruu wa-tattaquu), their plotting in anything will not harm you. Indeed, God is Encompassing of what they do.
[3:123] And certainly, God had helped you in (the battle of) Badr while you had been week, so you shall fear God (fa-ittaquu allaha) that you can appreciate.
[3:125] Nay, if you become patient and fear (God) (balaa in tasbiruu wa-tattaquu), and they come upon you of their sudden, when your Lord will support you with five thousand of the trained angels.
[3:130] O you who have believed, you shall not consume the usury for multiplying doubled, and you shall fear God (wa-ittaquu allaha) that you may succeed.
[3:131] And you shall fear the Fire (wa-ittaquu al-naara) which has been prepared for the disbelievers.
[3:172] Those who responded to God and the messenger after what had befallen them the injury, there is a great reward for those among them who have done good and have feared (God) (wa-ittaqaw).
[3:179] God has not been to leave the believers on what you are on it until He distinguishes the evil from the good. And God has not been to inform you about the unseen, except God chooses from His messengers whomever He wills; so you shall believe in God and His messengers, and if you believe and fear (God) (wa-in tu’minuu ittaquu), then for you there is a great reward.
[3:186] Certainly, you will be tested in your wealth and yourselves. And certainly, you will hear a lot of insult from those who have been given the scripture before yourselves and from those who associate partners (with God). And if you become patient and fear (God) (wa-in tasbiruu wa-tattaquu), that is a factor of the determination.
[3:198] But those who have feared their Lord (laa-kini alladheena ittaqaw rabbahum), for them there are gardens flowing rivers of their underneath as dwellers in them, is a reception from God. What is with God is better for the obedient.
[3:200] O you who have believed, you shall be steadfast and shall be patient and shall be consistent and shall fear God (is’biruu wa-saabiruu wa-raabituu wa-ittaquu allaha) that you may succeed.
Even the review of a set of 43 instances of ittaqaa found in 40 verses across 2 suras teaches us how the believers can succeed with their Lord being qualified for gardens flowing rivers from underneath them wherein they will abide forever. They are steadfast, patient, consistent, God fearing and obedient to God as they fear God, their Lord, the Fire and a Day of the Resurrection. Thus, not only the understanding of the close relation of taqwaa, muttaqeena and ittaqaa based on their grammatical forms rooted from the same but also reflecting to the context of sacred month, fasting, intercession, phases of the moon, Hajj and `Umrah, compensation of mothers for suckling their children, usury and the financial transactions to return to a good place, which is a place of security with unlimited provisions and enjoyments for the righteous.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.