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Review of instances of haneefan and khaatamun in Quran

Introduction

The two Arabic words, haneefan and khaatamun are reviewed to better understand the meanings in the verses where these instances are found in the Quran to reflect the appropriate messages in the contexts, which may help us believe and practice what is right for us to appreciate God following His words strengthening our hearts being our priority at all times in all situations without having any exceptions:

Details of instances of haneefan

There are 12 instances of haneefan in the noun form found in 12 verses across 9 surahs are detailed below to confirm their meanings in different contexts, while we know that the Arabic word may have different meanings in the different contexts:

[2:135] And they said, “You shall be Jews or Christians to guide.” Say, “Nay, (we belong to) a religion of Abraham – Monotheism (haneefan); and he has not been with those who associate partners with God.
Note: The Jews and the Christians said to those who belong to a religion of Monotheism that they had to be Jews or Christians to be guided, while God has assured that those who belong to a religion of Abraham – Monotheism are the guided ones.

[3:67] Abraham has neither been a Jew, nor a Christian; but he has been a submitter of Monotheism (haneefan), and he has not been with those who associate partners with God.
Note: Abraham has been a submitter to God belonging to a religion of Monotheism, and he has not been with the idol worshipers.

[3:95] Say (Muhammad), “God has declared truth that you shall follow a religion of Abraham – Monotheism (haneefan), and he has not been with those who associate partners with God.”
Note: Muhammad has been commanded to tell the believers to follow a religion of Abraham – Monotheism, and he has not been with the idol worshipers.

[4:125] And who has better religion than whoever has submitted himself to God, and he is a good doer and has followed a religion of Abraham – Monotheism (haneefan)? And God has taken Abraham as a friend.
Note: God has defined a religion for all of us, which is a religion of Abraham – Monotheism being a submitter to Him.

[6:79] “Indeed me (Abraham), I have turned myself to the One who has created the heavens and the earth (striving) for Monotheism (haneefan), and I am not with those who associate partners with God.”
Note: Abraham has been a submitter to Creator of the heavens and the earth seeking for Monotheism, while he declared that he was not with the idol worshipers.

[6:161] Say (Muhammad), “Indeed me, has guided me my Lord to a straight path, an established religion, a religion of Abraham – Monotheism (haneefan). And he has not been with those who associate partners with God.”
Note: Muhammad declared that God has guided him to a straight path, an established religion, a religion of Abraham – Monotheism, and he was not with the idol worshipers.

[10:105] And that you (Muhammad) shall establish yourself to the religion, Monotheism (haneefan), and you do not be with those who associate partners with God.
Note: God has commanded Muhammad to establish himself to the religion of Monotheism not to be with the idol worshipers.

[16:120] Indeed, Abraham has been a community of Monotheism (haneefan) being obedient to God, and he was not with those who associate partners with God.
Note: Abraham and his people belong to a community of monotheism, and they were obedient to God.

[16:123] Then we have inspired to you (Muhammad) that you shall follow a religion of Abraham, monotheism (haneefan); and he has not been with those who associate partners with God.
Note: God has inspired Muhammad to follow a religion of Abraham – monotheism, which is a clear indication that he has practiced the rites revealed to Abraham and has followed the Quran what has been revealed to him, confirming Islam being the practices of God’s religion of Monotheism.

[22:31] Monotheists (hunafaa-a) belong to God, not being associaters of partners with Him; and whoever associates partner(s) with God, then it is like that he had fallen from the sky, then the bird snatches him, or the wind blows of him to a far-off place.
Note: Monotheism belongs to God but not polytheism. Thus, those who associate partners with God, they nullify their all deeds.

[30:30] So, you shall establish yourself for the religion of Monotheism (haneefan), an instinct of God, which on it He has created mankind. There is no change for God’s creation. That is the established religion, but most of the people do not know
Note: God has commanded every one of us to establish the religion of Monotheism being it of His instinct on which He has created mankind and that is the established religion. Thus, we are born with a religion of Monotheism, i.e., with a belief that there is one God whom we would worship.

[98:5] And they have not been commanded except that they would worship God being sincere to Him in the religion of monotheism (hunafaa-a) and would establish the salah and would give the zakah. And that is the established religion.
Note: The people of the previous scripture who have divided them had been commanded to worship God being sincere to Him in the religion of Monotheism as well as to establish Salat and to give the Zakah being part of the established religion.

In brief what we can reflect is God has confirmed the guided ones who belong to a religion of Abraham – Monotheism, and Abraham has been a submitter of Monotheism; He has inspired Muhammad to follow a religion of Abraham, Monotheism, while He has guided him to a straight path, an established religion, a religion of Abraham – Monotheism; He has commanded every one of us to establish a religion of Monotheism being it His instinct on which He has created the human.

Even though the Arabic word, haneefan in the Quran has been translated to “upright” by most translators, but its interpretation to “monotheism” is more appropriate to express the precise message in different contexts, but what is important for us to understand that God has decreed Monotheism, a religion for mankind, which is an in-born instinct that the human would worship one God being sincere to Him and would not associate partners with Him to nullify their deeds. Thus, Monotheism is a God given religion for the human, and Submission is its practices were first given to Abraham.

Details of instances of khaatamun

There are 8 instances of khaatamun including its derived forms in the Quran in 8 verses across 7 surahs, and these instances can be classified into 3 grammatical groups: (1) verb, (2) noun and (3) passive participle as shown in the table below

table3

Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com.

Instances of khatama

There are 5 instances of khatama in the verb form I mean “to seal” in the Quran in 5 verses across 5 surahs are described below:

[2:7] God has sealed (khatama allahu) on their hearts, and on their hearing, and on their eyes, is a veil. And for them there is a great punishment.
Note: God has sealed on hearts, hearing and vision of those who say that they believe in God and the Last Day, but they are not believers.

[6:46] Say (Muhammad), “Have you seen if God has taken away your hearing and your eyesight, and has sealed on your hearts (wa-khatama `alaa quluubikum), whoever god other than God, can bring to you with it?” You shall see how we explain the revelations, yet they turn away.
Note: If God had taken away our hearing and vision and had sealed on our hearts, there is no god other than God who could bring back. Even there is opportunity for the people to reflect to His revelations, but most of the people turn away from them.

[36:65] Today we seal on their mouths (al-yawma nakhtima `alaa afwaahihim); and their hands will speak to us, and their feet will bear witness of what they have done to earn.
Note: God has pledged that on a day of the Judgment the guilty will be in Hell, and He will seal their mouths, while their hands will speak to Him, and their feet will bear witness of what they have done to achieve. Thus, the guilty will not be able to hide their wickedness and wrongdoing from God.

[42:24] Or do they say, “He has invented a lie about God?” That if God wills, He will seal on your heart (yakhtim `alaa qal’bika), and God removes the falsehood and establishes the truth with His words. Indeed, He is Knower of what is in the breasts.
Note: The disbelievers say what Muhammad is reciting to them is a lie about God, but God has warned them that if it were that He would seal on his heart, while He has removed the falsehood and has established the truth with His words that the believers only trust upon Him and His words.

[45:23] Have you then seen whoever has taken his ego as his god? And God has let him go astray, despite of knowledge, and He has sealed on his hearing and his heart (wa-khatama `alaa sam`ihi wa-qalbihi) and has placed a veil on his vision. then who can guide him, after God? Do you not then take heed?
Note: God has let him go astray whoever has taken his ego as his god, while He has sealed on his hearing and his heart as well as has put a veil on his vision, and there is none to guide him.

Instances of khaatam/khitaam

khaatam and khitaam are two instances in the noun form meaning “seal” in the Quran, which are described below that we can reflect to the appropriate message in the context:

[33:40] Muhammad has not been a father of anyone of your men but has had a messenger of God and a seal of the prophets (wa-laakin rasuula allahi wa-khaatama al-nabiyeen). And God has done being Knower of everything.
Note: God has not given any son to Muhammad, but what He has given him is a messenger of God and the last edition of scripture that his contemporaries were supposed to pay attention to it as well as the people down the generations. The messages in 3:23 to invite those who have been given a part of the scripture to a scripture and in 6:115 that your Lord’s word has completed truth and justice, and the definition in the Quran that prophets are those who have been given scripture and prophethood suggest to make that interpretation to be appropriate to translate the phrase, khaatama al-nabiyeen to ‘the last edition of scripture’ to reflect appropriate message in the verse, even it literally means ‘a seal of the prophets’.

[83:26] Its seal will be of musk (khitaamuhu mis’kun), and in that let him aspire of the aspirers.
Note: Even the seal of the bottle of a pure drink will have a special flavor for those who will be dwellers of the Paradise.

Instance of makhtuum

makhtuum is an instance in the passive particle form meaning “a sealed one” in the Quran, which is described below that we can better understand the message in the context:

[83:25] They will be given to drink from a pure beverage being sealed (min raheeqin makhtuumin).
Note: The dwellers of the Paradise will be given to drink from a pure beverage in a sealed bottle.

In brief, what we learn from the review of instances of khaatamun and its derived forms referring to their meaning “seal or to seal” is God has sealed on hearts, hearing and vision of those who have disbelieved in Him and the Last Day; if He had taken away our hearing and vision and had sealed on our hearts, there is no god other than Him who could bring them back; on a day of the Judgment He will seal the mouths of the guilty, while their hands will speak to Him and their feet will bear witness of what they had done to achieve; if Muhammad had recited lie about God, He would seal on his heart; God has let him go astray whoever has taken his ego as his god, and has sealed on his hearing and heart as well as has placed a veil on his vision; what has been given to Muhammad is a messenger of God and a seal of the prophets; the dwellers of the Paradise will have a special flavor from a seal of a bottle of a pure drink while they will drink pure drink from a sealed bottle to have no contamination in their drink. Even though the Arabic word, khaatamun may have a range of meanings in the Arabic language but the translation of the Arabic phrase, khaatama al-nabiyeen to ‘the last edition of scripture’ is logical and appropriate to express the precise message in the context in light of the literal meaning “seal” referring it scripture and prophethood to the phrase not to have any trace of personality cult in interpretation that the believers can prepare themselves for the Hereafter following a messenger of God and the last edition of His scripture given to Muhammad being God’s guidance for the people of the world.

Conclusion

The instances of haneefan and khaatamun in the Quran have been reviewed together, even though there is no direct relationship between them. But the review of their instances in different contexts provides us enough information to build our clear concept and strengthen our faith to avoid misinterpretation and misconception.

The review of instances of haneefan confirms that God has given us a religion of Monotheism, and Submission is its practices, which were first given to Abraham, and Muhammad was commanded to continue its practices updating through the Quran, the last edition of His scripture revealed through him. Thus, God guided Muhammad to a straight path to a religion of Abraham, a religion of Monotheism, while he was told to preach it to the people.

The review of instances of khaatamun and its derived forms confirm that God has sealed on hearing, and vision, and hearts of those who have disbelieved in Him and the Last Day. On a day of the Judgment, He will seal the mouths of the guilty, while their hands will speak to Him, and their feet will bear witness of what they had done to achieve. If Muhammad had recited lie about God, He would have sealed his heart, but what he had recited is a messenger of God and the last edition of His scripture being a guidance and a straight path to Him for the people of the world until the end of the world should get the attention of the believers.

Even we may not see any direct relation between instances of haneefan and khaatamun, but what this review makes clear is haneefan refers to Monotheism, a God given religion for the human and a hint being Islam is its practices were first given to Abraham, and khaatamun refers to the last edition of His scripture to reinforce that the scripture and the religion are two handles to hold fast to God to see our success in the Hereafter, while God removes the falsehood and establishes the truth with His words.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.
Tafazzal (03/18/2022).