The instances of Arabic words from the root: waaw, qaaf and yaa (و ق ي) occurs 258 times in the Quran, in 8 derived forms having similar meanings according to their morphological and grammatical forms while we know that an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context, which is a key concept to understand the message coded in the Arabic text of the Quran:
Note: The above table is populated with data obtained from the corpus.quran.com
258 instances can broadly be grouped into 3 forms: 182 as the verb, 24 as the noun and 52 as the participle form. However, 17 instances of taqwaa meaning “righteousness” in the noun form and 49 instances of muttaqeen meaning “righteous” in the active participle form are reviewed to understand the message in different context in the Quran being crucial for us to attain righteousness with God:
Instances of taqwaa
There are 17 instances of taqwaa meaning “righteousness” found in 17 verses across 13 suras in the Quran are described below:
[2:197] The Hajj in the known months, so whoever has decided to go to the Hajj in them, then there shall be no sexual relation, nor wickedness, nor argument during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, God knows it; and take provision, while the best provision is righteousness (fa-inna khayra al-zaadi al-taqwaa). And you shall fear Me O people of understanding.
[2:237] And if you (men) divorce them (women) before you have touched them, while indeed, you have specified for them an obligation, then (give) half of what you have specified, except that they (female) forgo or the guardian of the marriage forgoes. And that you forgo, is closer for the righteousness (wa-an ta`fuu aqrabu lilttaqwaa). And do not forget graciousness between you; indeed, God is Seer of what you do.
[5:2] O you who have believed, you should not violate the rites of God, nor the sacred month, nor the animal sacrifice, nor what is garlanded with, nor those coming to the Sacred House for seeking blessing from their Lord and pleasure. And when you have come out of Ihram, then you may hunt. And the hatred of a people should not incite you when they have prevented from the Sacred Masjid that you may transgress. And you shall help one another in the uprightness and the righteousness (wa-ta`aawanuu `alaa al-biri wal-taqwaa), but you should not help one another in the sin and the transgression. And you shall fear God; indeed, God is severe in enforcing the retribution.
[5:8] O you who have believed, be steadfast for God as witnesses in justice, and let not you hatred of a people that not you do justice. Be just, it is closer for the righteousness (i`’diluu huwa aqrabu lilttaqwaa). And you shall fear God, indeed, God is aware of what you do.
[7:26] O Children of Adam, we have given you clothing to cover your shame as well as for luxury. But the best clothing is the righteousness (wa-libaasu al-taqwaa dhaalika khayrun). That is from God’s signs that they may take heed.
[9:108] You shall never stand in it. A masjid founded on the righteousness from the first day (la’masjidun assisa `alaa al-taqwaa awwali yawmin), is more worthy that you shall stand in it. In it, there are people who love to be purified and God loves those who purify themselves.
[9:109] Is one who establishes his foundation on the basis of righteousness of God and approval better (a-fa-man assasa bun’yaanahu `alaa taqwaa mina allahi wa-ridwaanin khayran), or one who establishes his foundation on the edge of a cliff about to collapse that it collapsed with him in the Fire of Hell? And God does not guide the wicked people.
[20:132] And you (Muhammad) shall enjoin your family with the Contact Prayer (bil-salati) as well as to be steadfast in it. We do not ask you for any provision, we provide for you; and the good end is for the righteousness (laa nas’aluka riz’qan nahnu nar’zuquka wal-`aaqibatu lilttaqwaa).
[22:32] That, and whoever honors the symbols of God, then indeed, it is from the righteousness of the hearts (fa-innahaa min taqwaa al-quluubi).
[22:37] Neither their meat nor their blood reaches God, and not reaches Him except the righteousness from you (wa-laakin yanaaluhu al-taqwaa minkum). Thus, He made them in service for you, that you may glorify God for what He has guided you; and give news to the good doers.
[47:17] And those who accept guidance; He increases them guidance, and grants them their righteousness (zaadahum hudan wa-aataahum taqwaahum).
[48:26] When those who disbelieved had put in their hearts the disdain of the time of ignorance, then God sent down tranquility upon His messenger and the believers, and made them accept word of the righteousness (fa-anzala allahu sakeenatahu `alaa rasuulihi wa-`alaa al-mu’minuuna wa-alzamahum kalimata al-taqwaa), and they were entitled of it and worthy of it. And God has done being knower of everything.
[49:3] Surely, those who lower their voices with God’s messenger, those are the ones God has tested their hearts for the righteousness (ulaaika alladheena im’tahana allahu quluubahum lilttaqwaa). For them, there is forgiveness and a great recompense.
[58:9] O you who have believed, when you confer, do not confer with sin nor aggression nor disobedience to the messenger, but confer with the uprightness and the righteousness (wa-tanaajaw bil-biri wal-taqwaa), and you shall fear God, the One to Him you will be gathered.
[74:56] And none can take heed except that God wills. He is a source of the righteousness and a source of the forgiveness (huwa ahlu al-taqwaa wa-ahlu al-maghfirati).
[91:8] Then He enlightens it (soul) of its evilness and its righteousness (fa-alhamahaa fujuurahaa wa-taqwaahaa).
[96:12] Or he enjoins of the righteousness (aw amara bil-taqwaa)?
Here is the summary of 17 instances of taqwaa found in 17 verses across 13 suras in the Quran:
- The believers are to help one another in uprightness and righteousness but not in sins and aggression.
- God wants them not to hate people but to do justice as it is closer for the righteousness.
- He has given us clothing for covering shame and for luxury but the best clothing (covering) is the righteousness.
- He has ordered us to go to masjids founded based on the righteousness to purify ourselves.
- It is better for us to advocate righteousness and to achieve righteousness with God to deserve forgiveness from Him to see our success in the Hereafter.
Instances of muttaqeen
There are 49 instances of muttaqeen meaning “righteous” found in 49 verses across 30 suras in the Quran are described below:
[2:2] That is the scripture, there is no doubt in it, is a guidance for the righteous (dhaalika al-kitaabu laa rayba feehi hudan lil’muttaqeena).
[2:66] So we made it (violation of Sabbath) an example for those of its time and those after it, and a lesson for the righteous (wa-maw`izatan lil’muttaqeena).
[2:177] Uprightness is not turning your faces towards the east or the west. The uprightness of one is to believe in God, the Last Day, the angels, the scripture, and the prophets, and to give the wealth with his love to those who are the near relatives, the orphans, the needy, the wayfarer, the beggars, and in freeing the slaves; and observes the Contact Prayer and gives the Obligatory Charity; and those who keep their pledge when they make it, and those who are patient in suffering and hardship, and the time of stress. Those are the ones who are the truthful and those are the righteous (ulaaika alladheena sadaquu wa-ulaaika humu al-muttaqeena).
[2:180] Decreed for you (all) when the death approaches any of you, is good if he leaves the will for the parents and the near relatives in fairness, a duty on the righteous (in taraka khayran al-wasiyatu lil’walidayni wal-aqrabeena bil-ma`ruufi haqqan `alaa al-muttaqeena).
[2:194] The sacred month is the sacred month but the violations are subjected to just retribution. So anyone who transgressed upon you, then you shall transgress upon him in the same manner as he transgressed upon you. And you shall fear God and should know that God is with the righteous (wa-ittaquu allaha wa-i`lamuu anna ma`a al-muttaqeena).
[2:241] And for the divorced women, a provision in fairness is a duty upon the righteous (wa-lil’mutallaqaati mataa`un bil-ma`ruufi haqqan `alaa al-muttaqeena).
[3:76] Yes, whoever has fulfilled of his pledge and has feared (God), then God loves the righteous (fa-inna allaha yuhibbu al-muttaqeena).
[3:115] And whatever good they do, then they will never be denied it, and God is Knower of the righteous (wal-lahu `aleemun bil-muttaqeena).
[3:133] And you shall hasten towards forgiveness of your Lord, and a Garden, its width of the heavens and the earth has been prepared for the righteous (wa-jannatin `arduhaa al-samaawaatu wal-ardu u`iddat lil’muttaqeena).
[3:138] It is proclamation for the people as well as guidance and enlightenment for the righteous (haadhaa bayaanun lil’nnasi wa-hudan wa-maw’`izatun lil’muttaqeena).
[5:27] And recite to them the story of Adam’s two sons in truth. When they had offered a sacrifice, and it was accepted from one of them, and was not accepted from the other. He said: “I will surely kill you!”; he said: “God only accepts from the righteous (qala la’aqtulannaka qala innamaa yataqabbalu allahu mina al-muttaqeena).”
[5:46] And we followed to their footsteps with Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming what was with him of the Torah, and we gave him the Gospel, in it there was guidance and light as well as what was with him of the Torah and a guidance and enlightenment for the righteous (wa-hudan wa-maw`izatan lil’muttaqeena).
[7:128] Moses said to his people: “Seek help of God and be patient. Indeed, the earth belongs to God, He causes it to inherit to whomever He wills of His servants and the end is for the righteous (yuurithuhaa man yashaau min `ibaadihi wal-`aaqibatu lil’muttaqeena).”
[8:34] And what is for them that God should not punish them as they prevented from the Sacred Masjid while they were not its custodians? Not are its custodians except the righteous (in awliyaauhu illaa al-muttaqeena) while most of them do not know.
[9:4] Except those of the idol worshipers with whom you have a treaty then they have not failed you in anything and have not supported anyone against you. So you shall fulfill their treaty with them until their term. Indeed, God loves the righteous (inna allaha yuhibbu al-muttaqeena).
[9:7] How can the idol worshipers have a pledge with God and with His messenger except those with whom you made a pledge at the Sacred Masjid? As long as they are honest with you, so long you are to be honest with them. Indeed, God loves the righteous (inna allaha yuhibbu al-muttaqeena).
[9:36] The number of months with God is twelve months per God’s concern from the day He created the heavens and the earth, of them four are sacred. That is the perfect religion, so you shall not wrong yourselves (your souls) therein. And you shall fight the idol worshipers all together as they fight you all together, and should know that God is with the righteous (wa-i`lamuu anna allaaha ma`a al-muttaqeena).
[9:44] Those who believe in God and the last day would not ask you that they strive with their money and their lives. And God is Knower of the righteous (wal-lahu aleemun bil-muttaqeena).
[9:123] O you who have believed, you shall fight the disbelievers around you, and let them find strength in you, and should know that God is with the righteous (wa-i`lamuu anna allaha ma`a al-muttaqeena).
[11:49] This is from the news of the past which we reveal to you (Muhammad). Neither you nor your people knew of this before. So be patient, indeed, the end is (good) for the righteous (inna `aaqibata lil’muttaqeena).
[13:35] The example of Paradise which is promised to the righteous (mathalu al-jannati allatee wu`ida al-muttaqeena), is the rivers flow from beneath it, its provision is everlasting and its shade as well. This is the end of those who fear (God), while the end of the disbelievers is the Fire.
[15:45] Indeed, the righteous will be in gardens and fountains (inna al-muttaqeena fee jannatin wa-`uyuunin).
[16:30] And it is said to those who fear (God): “What has your Lord sent down?” They say:” Good.” For those who do good in this world is goodness and surely, the home of the Hereafter is better. And surely, excellent is the home of the righteous (wa-la’ni`ma daaru al-muttaqeena).
[16:31] Gardens of Eden, to which they will enter, the rivers flow from beneath them. For them therein whatever they will wish. It is such that God rewards the righteous (kadhaalika yajzee allahu al-muttaqeena).
[19:85] The day we will gather the righteous as a delegation to the Most Gracious (yawma nahshuru al-muttaqeena ilaa al-rahmaani wafdan).
[19:97] So, we have indeed made it (Quran) easy with your (Muhammad) tongue that you may give good news to the righteous with it (fa-innama yassarnaahu bi-lisaanika li’tubashira bihi al-mutaaqeena) and you may warn the hostile people with it.
[21:48] And certainly, we gave Moses and Aaron the statute book, a light, and a reminder for the righteous (wa-laqad ataynaa muusaa wa-haaruuna al-fur’qaana wa-diyaa-an wa-dhik’ran lil’muttaqeena).
[24:34] And certainly, we have sent down to you clear revelations and an example of those who passed away before yourself and an enlightenment for the righteous (wa-mathalan mina alladheena khalaw min qablikum lil’muttaqeena).
[25:15] Say: “Is that better or Garden of Eternity, which is promised to the righteous (a-dhaalika khayrun aw jannatu al-khuldi allatee wu`ida al-muttaqeena)?” It is for them a reward and destination.
[25:74] And those who say: “Our Lord, grant for us from our spouses and our offspring comfort to us, and make us the forefront of the righteous (rabbanaa hab lanaa min azwaajinaa wa-dhurriyyaatinaa qurrata a`yunin wa-ij`alnaa lil’muttaqeena imaaman).”
[26:90] And the Paradise will be brought near for the righteous (wa-uz’lifati al-jannatu lil’muttaqeena).
[28:83] This is the home of the Hereafter; we reserve it for those who do not seek prestige in the earth nor corruption. And the end is for the righteous (wal-`aaqibatu lil’muttaqeena).
[38:28] Or shall we treat those who believe and do righteous works like we treat those who spread corruption in the earth or shall we treat the righteous like we treat the wicked (aw naj`alu al-muttaqeena k’al-fujaan)?
[38:49] This (Quran) is a reminder, and indeed, for the righteous there is certainty of a good place of return (wa-inna lil’muttaqeena lahusna ma-aabin).
[39:33] And the one who comes with the truth and believe in it, those are the righteous (ulaaika humu al-muttaqeena).
[39:57] Or say: “If that God guided me, I would have certainly been among the righteous (law anna allahu hadaanee la’kuntu mina al-muttaqeena).”
[43:35] And ornaments and all that is not but an enjoyment of this worldly life while the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous (wal-aakhiratu `inda rabbika lil’muttaqeena).
[43:67] That day, friends will become enemies to one another except for the righteous (al-akhilaau yawmaidhin ba`duhum li’ba`din `aduwwun illaa lil’muttaqeena).
[44:51] Indeed, the righteous will be in a place of security (inna al-muttaqeena fee maqaamin ameenin).
[45:19] They cannot benefit you in anything against God. And the transgressors are allies to one another while God is the Protector of the righteous (wal-lahu waliyyu al-muttaqeena).
[47:15] Illustration of the Paradise which is promised to the righteous (mathalu al-jannati allatee wu`ida al-muttaqeena) having rivers of water not being polluted, and rivers of milk whose taste does not change, and rivers of wine delicious for the drinkers, and rivers of purified honey, and for them in it are all kinds of fruits and a forgiveness from their Lord like the one who abides in the Fire and they are given to drink boiling water that pierces their intestines?
[50:31] And the Paradise will be brought near for the righteous (wa-uz’lifati al-jannatu lil’muttaqeena), not far.
[51:15] Indeed, the righteous will be in gardens and springs (inna al-muttaqeena fee jannaatin wa-`uyuunin).
[52:17] Indeed, the righteous will be in gardens and bliss (inna al-muttaqeena fee jannaatin wa-na`eemin).
[54:54] Indeed, the righteous will be in gardens and rivers (inna al-muttaqeena fee jannaatin wa-naharin).
[68:34] Indeed, for the righteous with their Lord are gardens of bliss (inna lil’muttaqeena `inda rabbihim jannaatin al-na`eemi).
[69:48] And indeed, this is a reminder for the righteous (wa-innahu la’tadhkiratan lil’muttaqeena).
[77:41] Indeed, the righteous will be in shades and springs (inna al-muttaqeena fee zilaalin wa-`uyuunin).
[78:31] Indeed, for the righteous is success (inna lilmuttaqeena mafaazan).
Here is the summary of 49 instances of muttaqeen found in 49 verses across 30 suras in the Quran:
- God has given us a scripture (Quran) in which there is no doubt is guidance for the righteous.
- The truthful and righteous lead a life according to given criteria of uprightness instituted by God.
- It is obligatory for the righteous that they will leave a will with fairness for their parents and the near relatives before their death.
- Those who fear God treat the sacred month as it should be treated and know that God is with the righteous.
- The story of Adam’s two sons confirms that God only accepts offer from the righteous.
- He has given us the statute book, a light, and a reminder to be the righteous as He gave to Moses and Aaron.
- Quran is a reminder which confirms the return of a good place that the righteous will be in a place of security.
- God does not treat the righteous as He treats the wicked those who spread corruptions in the earth while He is the Protector of the righteous.
- The righteous does not seek for status in the worldly life while the end is for them with God in the Hereafter.
- For the righteous is success with their Lord are gardens of bliss with provisions and enjoyments.
Two closely related Arabic words, taqwaa and muttaqeena are reviewed together to understand every detail from the relevant verses of the Quran, a reminder which confirms the return of the righteous to a good place that they will be in a place of security with provisions and enjoyments.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.