top_heading

Review of the references of the Torah and the Gospel in the Quran

Introduction

God promised to send down guidance (2:38, 7:24-25 and 20:123) when He decided to sendthe human on earth to give another chance (7:24-25)whileAdam and his wife, parents of humans violated God’s order in the Heaven being duped by the Satan (7:20-23). Thus, He has sent down scripture from time to time to His prophets to guide humanity to the right directionfor its disgrace and deviation (5:46, 57:27).Even though we do not exactly know the names of all thescripture given to humanity but He has blessed our generation with the knowledge to derive from the Quranthat He has sent down 19 scripture through 20 prophets to humanity, the Quran being the final scripture (33:40)referencing it a reminder for the people of the world (12:104, 38:87, 68:52 and 81:27).

However, we know that the Torah is a collection of scripture given to the Jewish prophets and the Gospel given to prophet Jesus are mentioned many times in the Quran.The Torah often referred to the Jewish Bible(old testament) is a guidance for the Jews and the Gospel given to Jesus often referred to the Christian Bible (new testament) is a guidance for the Christians while the Torah and the Gospel are compiled togetheroften referred to the Bible is a guidance for the Christians as well. However, both the Jews and the Christians are often referred to the people of the scripture in the Quran to differentiate them from the people of the Quran, which canbe called the final testament.

Details of the verses having instances of Torah and Gospel

Let us review the references of the Torah and the Gospel in the relevant verses of the Quran to understand Torah and Gospel being guidance of the previous communities as well as to reflect to a lesson in them for those who uphold Quran, the final scripture to humanity:

[3:3] He sent down to you (Muhammad)the scripture (Quran) with the truth confirming what was before it (limaa bayna yadayhi); and He sent down the Torah and the Gospel (al-tawraata wa-al-Injeela).
Note: God sent down the Quran confirming the Torah and the Gospel which were sent down before the Quran as guidance of the previous communities.

[3:48] And He teaches him (Jesus) the scripture (wa-yu’allimuhu al-kitaabi) and the wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel (wa-al-tawraata wa-al-Injeela).
Note: God taught Jesus both the Torah and the Gospel, and both the Torah and the Gospel were guidance for the followers of Jesus.

[3:50] “And confirming what was before me (Jesus) of the Torah (limaa bayna yadayya min al-tawraati), and that I make lawful for you some of that which was forbidden to you; and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so you shall fear God and obey me.”
Note: God made lawful what was unlawful for the followers of the Torah through the revelation of the Gospel.

[3:65] “O people of the scripture, why do you debate about to Abraham while the Torah and the Gospel were not sent down (wa-maa unzilati al-tawraatu wa-al-Injeelu)except after him (illa min ba’dihi)? Then do you not understand?”

Note: Torah was guidance for the Jews while the Torah and the Gospel was guidance for the Christians while Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, which has been clarified referring to the Torah and the Gospel to avoid any confusion about him.

Note: Here is a confirmation from God that food is made lawful and unlawful through the divine revelation.

[5:43] And how can they make you (Muhammad) their judge, while they have the Torah, in it there is God’s judgment (wa-‘indahumu al-tawraatu feehaa hukumu allahi)?Then they turn away after that, and those are not the believers.
Note: Those who are given the Torah became the disbelievers for disregarding it.

[5:44] Indeed, we sent down the Torah wherein there was guidance and light (innaa anzalnaaal-tawraata feehaa hudan wa-noorun); the prophets who submitted judged those who were Jews with itas well as the rabbis and the priests, for what they were entrusted of God’s scripture as well as they were witness over it. So do not fear the people but fear Me; and do not trade with My revelations for a small price. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then they are the disbelievers.
Note: Torah was guidance and light revealed to the prophets who judged those who were Jews with a warning to fear God and not to trade with His revelations for a small price. However, the Torah is a collection of scripture given to the Jewish prophets, referring it in the feminine gender, “haa” while the Gospel and the Quran are mentioned in the masculine gender, “hu”in the Quran.

[5:46] And we followed to their footsteps with Jesus, the son of Mary (wa-qaffaynaa alaa aathaarihim bi-‘eesaa ib’ni maryama), confirming what was with him of the Torah (musaddiqan limaa bayna yadayhi min al-tawraati, and we gave him the Gospel (wa-‘aataynaahu al-Injeela), in it there was guidance and lightas well as what was with him of the Torah (musaddiqan limaa bayna yadayhi min al-tawraati), and a guidance and lesson for the righteous.
Note: God sent Jesus to the footsteps of other messengers confirming the Torah is a clear indication that He sent His messengers from time to time to guide humanity to the right path.

[5:47] And let the people of the Gospel judge with what God has sent down in it (walyah’kum ahlul al-Injeeli bimaa anzala allahu feehi). And whoever does not judge by what God has sent down, then they are these who are the disobedient.
Note: The people of the Gospelwho do not judge by what has been sent to them are disobedient.

[5:66] And if they had upheld the Torah and the Gospel (walaw annahum aqaamoo al-tawraata wa-al-Injeela), and what was sent down to them from their Lord, they would have been blessed from above them and below their feet. From among them there is a good community, but most of them what they do is evil.
Note: Those who upheld the Torah and the Gospelis a good community but most of them what they do is evil.

[5:68] Say: “O people of the scripture, you are not on anything unless you uphold the Torah and the Gospel(lastum ‘alaa shayin hattaa tuqeemoo al-tawraata wa-al-Injeela) and what was sent down to you from your Lord.” And surely, what has been sent down to you from your Lord will increase rebellion and disbelief in many of them. So do not grieve for the disbelieving people.
Note: The people of the Torah and the Gospel who do not uphold the Torah and the Gospel are not following God’s teachings and laws while the revelation of the Quran will increase rebellion and disbelief in many of them.

[5:110] God said: “O Jesus son of Mary, remember My blessings upon you and your mother that I supported you with the Holy Spirit; you spoke to the people in the cradle and maturity; and when I taught you the scripture and the wisdom, and the Torah, and the Gospel (wa-idh allamtuka al-kitaaba wa-al-hik’maata wa-al-tawraata wa-al-Injeela); and when you make the shape of a bird from clay, then you blow into it, so it becomes a bird by My leave; and you heal the blind and the leaper by My leave; and you bring out the dead by My leave. And I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you came to them with the clear proofs, then those who disbelieved among them said: ‘This is not but a clear magic!’”
Note: Jesus was taught both the Torah and the Gospel and sent with him the clear proofs but the disbelievers said a clear magic.

[7:157] “Those who follow the gentile messenger prophet(al-rasoola al-nabiya al-umiya) (Muhammad) whom they find written for them in the Torah and the Gospel (alladhee yajidoonahu maktooban indahum fee al-tawraati wa-al-Injeeli); he enjoins them to the right, and prevents them from the evil, and he makes lawful for them the good things, and forbids the bad things for them, and he removes their burden on them and the shackles that are upon them. So, those who believe in him, and honor him, and support him, and follow the light that was sent down with him; these are the successful ones.”
Note: Here is the commandment for the people of the previous scripture as well as for the people of the Quran to follow the light sent down to the gentile messenger prophet to be successful in the Hereafter. The Arabic word, “al-umiya” from the root word “ummy” means someone who had no knowledge of the Torah and the Gospel in the context.

[9:111] God has purchased the lives and wealth of the believers in exchange for Paradise for them. They fight in the cause of God while they kill and are killed. A true promise of Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Quran (wa’dan ‘alayhi haqqan feel al-tawraati wa-al-Injeeli wa-al-qur’aani). And who is more truthful to his promise than God? So rejoice in your transaction that you have contracted in it, and such is the greatest success.
Note: God promised a great reward in the Torah, the Gospel and the Quran for those who fight in the cause of God.

[48:29] Muhammad, a messenger of God and those who are with him are stern against the disbelievers, but merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating, seeking God’s blessings and approval. Their mark is in their faces as a result of prostrating. Such is their example in the Torah (dhaalika mathaluhum fee al-tawraati). And their example in the Gospel is like a plant which shoots out (wa-mathaluhum feel al-Injeeli akhraja shat’ahu) and becomes strong and thick and it stands straight on its stem, pleasing to the farmers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. God promises those among them who believe and do good works forgiveness and a great reward.
Note:The believers are those who seek God’s blessings and approval, and their practices are reflected in their faces cited in the Quran and the Torah while as an example of a thick and strong stem of a plant that pleases farmers cited in the Gospel.

[57:27] Then we followed with our messengers to their footsteps (thumma qaffaynaa alaa aathaarihim bi-rasulanaa), and we followed with Jesus, the son of Mary (wa-qaffaynaa bi-‘eesa ib’ni maryama), and we gave him the Gospel (wa-aataynaahu al-Injeela), and we placed kindness and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him. But they invented monasticism (wa-rahbaaniyyatan ib’tada’oohaa) – we never prescribed it for them except to seek pleasure of God but they have not observed it a right observance. So, we gave their recompense among them who believed, while many of them were disobedient.
Note: God sent His messengers to the footsteps of other messengers is a clear indication that God has sent His messengers from time to time to guide humanity in the right direction.

[61:6] And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel, indeed, I am a messenger of God to you, confirming what was before me of the Torah (innee rasoola allahi ‘alaykum musaddiqan limaa bayna yadayya mina al-tawraati) and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me,his name is Ahmad.” But when he (Muhammad)came to them with the clear proofs (fa-lammaa jaa-ahum bil-bayinaati), they said: “This is a clear magic.”
Note: Jesus was given the Gospel confirming the Torah informing his people of upcoming a messenger after him named Ahmad but when he came to them with the clear proofs, they did not accept him.

[62:5] The example of those who were entrusted with the Torah (mithalu alladheena hummilhoo al-tawraata), then they did not bear it as like as the donkey carrying books (thumma lam yahmiloohaa ka-mathali al-himmaari yahmilu asfaaran). Miserable is the example of a people who disbelieved in the revelations of God while God does not guide the wicked people.
Note: The people of the Torahwho did not follow its teachings and laws are like a donkey thatcarries load.

Message at a glance in the verses associated with instances of Torah and Gospel

There are 18 instances of Torah and 12 instances of Gospel in the 18 verses across 8 suras in the Quran. Here are the brief messages from these instances of Torah and Gospel:

  • God sent down the Quran confirming the Torah and the Gospel which were before it (3:3, 3:48).
  • God made lawful what was unlawful for the followers of the Torah through the revelation of the Gospel (3:50, 3:93).
  • Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, which has been clarified referring to the Torah and the Gospel to avoid any confusion about what was given to him as guidance to uphold (3:65).
  • Who were given the Torah but disregard it are the disbelievers (5:43).
  • Torah was guidance and light revealed to the prophets to judgethose who were Jews with a warning to fear God and not to trade with His revelations for a small price (5:44).
  • God sent messengers from time to time confirming the message revealed through the previous messenger (5:46).
  • The people of the Gospel who do not judge by what has been sent to them are disobedient (5:47).
  • Those who were given the Torah and the Gospel upheld it is a good community but most of them are evil (5:66).
  • Those who were given the Torah and the Gospel but do not uphold them are following nothing (5:68).
  • Jesus was sent with the clear signs but the disbelievers said a clear magic (5:110).
  • Here is the commandment for the people of the previous scripture as well as for the people of the Quran to follow the light sent down to the gentile messenger prophet to be successful in the Hereafter (7:157).
  • God has promised a great reward in the Torah, the Gospel and the Quran for those who fight in the cause of God (9:111)
  • The believers are those who seek God’s blessings and approval, and their practices are reflected in their faces cited in the Quran and the Torah while as an example of a thick and strong stem of a plant that pleases farmers has reflected in the Gospel (48:29).
  • God sent His messengers following prophets Noah and Abraham, is a clear indication that He has sent His messengers from time to time to guide humanity in the right direction (57:27).
  • Jesus was given the Gospel confirming the Torah informing his people about the upcoming of a messenger after him named Ahmad but when he came to them with the clear proofs, they did not accept him (61:6).
  • The people of the Torah did not follow its teachings and laws except just carrying it as a load as like as a donkey does (62:5).

Mathematical confirmation

Out of 18 instances of Torah, 17 instances, and out of 12 instances of Gospel, 11 instances together 28 instances of Torah and Gospel in the 17 verses across 8 suras of the Quran participate in the mathematical confirmation, and the total of the relevant sura and verse numbers is a multiple of 19 => 1843 = 19x97 (see details in the table below):

table1

The above mathematical interpretation is a physical fact that the humanity undergoes different guidance periods and every community has received specific rules, laws and teachings from God fitting to the respective time era to uphold to lead a righteous life being our religion to be progressive as dictated by God in His scripture.

Note: The instance of “Torah” as well as the instance of “Gospel” present in the verse (3:65) is not included in the calculation because of non-existence of Torah and Gospel at the time of Abraham. The instances of “Torah” are highlighted green while the instances of “Gospel” are highlighted orange in the above table. The verse numbers are repeated in the table of calculation to represent both instances of “Torah” and “Gospel” present in the same verses.

Conclusion

This study clearly indicates that God sent down scripture from time to time through His prophets to guide humanity to the right direction at the right time. Thus, the humanity undergoes different guidance periods while every community has received specific rules, laws and teachings from God. The Torah given to the Jewish prophets has been confirmed through the revelation of the Gospel given to prophet Jesus, son of Mary and both the Torah and the Gospel have been confirmed through the revelation of the Quran given to prophet Muhammad. God taught Jesus both the Torah and the Gospel while He has confirmed that those who do not judge among them according to the teachings and laws of the Torah and the Gospel are the disbelievers.

God teaches us in the Quran that the people of the Torah and the Gospel who do not uphold and follow the teachings and laws of the Torah and the Gospel are following nothing.In addition, He has cited 2 examples in the Quran to warn us referring to the people of Torah that who did not follow its teachings and laws except carrying it as a load just like a donkey does and who traded with His revelations for a small price are the rabbis and the priestsen trusted with it. However, the people of the scripture who upheld the Torah and the Gospel is a good community but most of them are evil.

Jesus was given the Gospel confirming the Torah as well as the upcoming of a messenger after him named Ahmad. But it is unfortunate that when he came to them after him (Jesus) with the clear proofs, they did not accept him (Muhammad), even the revelation of the Quran has increased rebellion and disbelief in many of them.While there is a clear command for the people of the scripture and for those of the Quran to follow the light sent down to the gentile messenger prophet to be successful in the Hereafter.

According to the core teaching in any of the scripture sent down to humanity, the believers are those who seek God’s blessings and approval, and their practices are reflected as marks on their faces cited as an example in the Quran and the Torah while a thick and strong stem of a plant that pleases farmers citedas an example in the Gospel. God is pleased with these believers while He promised a great reward in the Torah, the Gospel and the Quran for those who fight in the cause of God.

Quran is the final scripture sent down in continuation of the Torah and Gospel to guide the last community of humanity according to God’s master plan. Thus, the people of the previous scripture and those of the last scripture are to uphold it for His teachings and laws in seeking His blessings and approval, a system handed down to us being the same as what was in the previous scripture to receive a recompense from Him.Hence, the scripture irrespective of guidance period has always been the basis of our religion, a way to lead a righteous life to become eligible for His reward. Now it is time to reflect to the fact confirmed by explicit proof that anyonewho does not uphold the finalscripture is a disbeliever in God or who follows anything other than this scripture is following nothing.

Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.
Tafazzal (1/12/2018)